Plan for Energy Efficiency of Buildings in the Black Sea Region
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Plan for Energy Efficiency of Buildings in the Black Sea Region BSBEEP Activity 2.3 – Calculation of the CarbonFootprint (CF) on municipal level Lucian Georgescu – external expert Municipality of Galati Romania. Carbon Footprint Study Principles.

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Plan for Energy Efficiency of Buildings in the Black Sea RegionBSBEEPActivity 2.3 – Calculation of the CarbonFootprint (CF) on municipal level

Lucian Georgescu – external expert

Municipality of Galati

Romania


Carbon footprint study principles
Carbon Footprint Study RegionPrinciples

Definition : "carbon footprint represents the life cycle of GHG emissions caused by the production of goods and services consumed by a population or activity geographically defined, whether if GHG emissions occur inside or outside the geographical boundaries of the population or interest activities." (Larsen & Hertwich, 2009, p. 792)

It is proposed to analyze the carbon footprint just for existing buildings in the city.

GHG emissions from production and consumption perspective



Methodologies of carbon footprint calculation 2
Methodologies of Carbon Footprint calculation (2) Region

Environmental input-output analysis Expanded

The analysis EEIO emissions reported are related to input-output tables, allowing for direct emissions caused by the production of an entity (product / services) and indirect emissions of its suppliers.

Analysis of life-cycle assessment (LCA PA)

Life cycle assessment is based on a process of analysis with a bottom-up approach to assess the environmental impact of individual products manufactured from the beginning to the end of product life.

Hybrid analysis of type IO-LCA

Category :

- tiered hybrid analysis - based on important processes and input - output monetary;

- hybrid analysis based on input-output - important processes are studied by means of input - output monetary data;

- integrated hybrid analysis - system based process is represented in physical units, while the Input - Output in monetary units

As its major advantage, the hybrid approach enables IOA and PA-LCA to complement each other in the same project.


Standardization and their application scale
Standardization and their application scale Region

Greenhouse Gas accounting standards on different scales

of application (Wu, W. 2011).


Emission factor for electricity consumption

Formula used for emission factor is: Region

EFE = [(TCE - LPE - GEP) * NEEFE + CO2LPE + CO2GEP] / ( TCE )

Where:

EFE = local emission factor for electricity [t/MWhe]

TCE = Total electricity consumption in the local authority [MWhe]

LPE = Local electricity production [MWhe]

GEP = Green electricity purchases by the local authority [MWhe]

NEEFE = National or European emission factor for electricity [t/MWhe]

CO2LPE = CO2 emissions due to the local production of electricity [t]

CO2GEP = CO2 emissions due to the production of certified green electricity [t]

In the exceptional case where the local authority would be a net exporter of electricity, then thecalculation formula would be:

EFE = ( CO2LPE + CO2GEP ) / ( LPE + GEP)

Emission factor for electricity consumption


The emission factors for heat cold consumption
The emission factors for heat/cold consumption Region

Formula used for emission factor is:

EFH = (CO2LPH + CO2IH – CO2EH) / LHC

Where:

  • EFH = emission factor for heat [t/MWhheat]

  • CO2LPH = CO2 emissions due to the local production of heat [t]

  • CO2IH = CO2 emissions related to any imported heat from outside the territory of the local authority [t]

  • CO2EH = CO2 emissions related to any heat that is exported outside of the territory of the local authority [t]

  • LHC = local heat consumption [MWh heat]

    A similar formula may apply for cold.

7


Mathematical model proposed for bsbeep
Mathematical Model Proposed for BSBEEP Region

To realize mathematical models, have been studied methodologies presented in UNEP report (United Nation Enviromental Programe) and in those proposed by CM (Covenant of mayors). For the modeling separation, it has been used a color code: for the industrial sector (purple color) and for domestic/private sector (blue color).

Thus, it has been realized 2 mathematical models that can be applied at city/municipality level on various sectors at certain resource consumptions (electricity, heat, fuel consumption), as follows:

Electricity Industrial sector LCA Method

IO Method

Domestic/Private sector LCA Method

IO Method

Heat Industrial sector LCA Method

National Standard

Domestic/Private sector LCA Method

National Standard

The results of these models (LCA and IO) should be gathered and made an average of them, according to the methodology applied at a city level. This value resulted from the summing up, represents the final result, in order to estimate the carbon footprint of the city due to electricity consumption of industrial sector or domestic/private sector.


Conclusions Studies Region

After may 2014

City A

City B

City C

City D

City E

9


Final results
Final Results Region

Expected results after the implementation of recommendations

made ​​in the project studies

City A

City B

City C

City D

City E



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