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A few acknowledgements. When I first started reading about the Kepler mission, the Kepler website proved invaluable. It has a wealth of information, as well as some really good, pre-made and field-tested, material for educators.

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A few acknowledgements

A few acknowledgements.

When I first started reading about the Kepler mission, the Kepler websiteproved invaluable.

It has a wealth of information, as well as some really good, pre-made and field-tested, material for educators.

I’ve borrowed liberally from the Transit Tracks worksheet and Transit Tracks PowerPoint presentation, especially

in some of the notes.

I also used parts a nice lab, linked here, that covers much of the same material but

that is suitable for a slightly more mature audience.

I think that I’ve cited sources for all of the images as well as all of the information found in the notes

(much of which were not used, but give a bit more information on the topics). If I’m missing a citation that

you notice, please let me know.


Transit graphs and extrasolar planets

Transit graphs and extrasolar planets

Hope Concannon

Teaching Contemporary mathematics conference

January 2014


Extrasolar planets are hard to detect because they are small dim and distant

extrasolar planets are hard to detect becausethey are small, dim, and distant


Brown dwarf and child

Brown Dwarf and Child

Spotted in 2004, the smaller red dot (the planet) is about 3 to 10 times more massive than Jupiter and is spinning around a brown dwarf, which is an object larger than a planet but without enough mass to ignite into a burning star.

http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso0515/


The first directly observed exoplanet

The first directly observed exoplanet

Mass: eight times the mass of Jupiter

Orbital radius: more than 300 AU

Temperature: over 2700°F

Credit: Gemini Observatory


Radial velocity method

Radial Velocity Method

http://obswww.unige.ch/~udry/planet/Images/doppler.jpg


The kepler mission

The Kepler Mission

According to NASA,

Kepler seeks evidence of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars.

(Photo : Reuters)

An artist's rendition of the Kepler satellite afloat in space.


A few acknowledgements

Kepler field of view


What is the habitable zone

What is the Habitable Zone?

Credit: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech


What is this

  • http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/78000/78196/ISS031-E-089012.jpg

What is this?


A few acknowledgements

  • Which type of system will make it easier to find planets using transits?

  • Small diameter planets or large diameter planets?

  • Small mass planets or large mass planets?

  • Planets close to their star or planets far from their star?

  • Face-on orbits or edge-on orbits?

  • Less massive stars or more massive stars?

  • Planets with orbits that are closer to circular

  • or highly elliptical orbits?

Credit: NASA/Ames/Caltech.


A few acknowledgements

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD/GSFC)


A few acknowledgements

Exoplanet transit simulator


A few acknowledgements

Another exoplanet transit simulator


What do real transits look like

What do Real transits look like?

Light-curve for HD209458b,

the first-discovered and

best-known transiting planet

(from Perryman 2000)


What do real transits look like1

What do real transits look like?


A few acknowledgements

Do you see the periodic transits?


A few acknowledgements

An expanded view…

How are the planet’s size and

period seen in the light curve?


Detectability of planets by the transit method

detectability of planets by the transit method


What do transit graphs reveal

What do transit graphs reveal?

The mathematics of a transit curve


What percent of light is blocked how is this related to the size of the planet

What percent of light is blocked? How is this related to the size of the planet?

http://nexsci.caltech.edu/workshop/2007/planet_transit.gif


What is the transit period what else does this tell you

What is the transit period?What else does this tell you?


Kepler s third law

Kepler’s Third Law

The square of the orbital period, T, of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis, a, of its orbit.

If expressed in units

TEarth years

aAU

Solar masses

Then


A few acknowledgements

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/docs/TransitTracks4_doc.jpg


A few acknowledgements

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/docs/TransitTracks5_doc.jpg


You try it can you determine the radius of the planet and it s orbital distance from it s sun

THE ACTUAL KEPLER 4B LIGHT CURVE

You try it. Can you determine the radius of the planet and it’s orbital distance from it’s sun?

You can get to this data

from this link


Other possibilities to explore

Other possibilities to explore


Temperature of the planet

Temperature of the Planet

Planet temperature can be determined from the parent star’s brightness and the planet’s size and orbital distance.

http://discovery.nasa.gov/images/missions/kepler/PlanetTempAndSize.jpg


A few acknowledgements

GEOMETRIC PROBABILITY OF TRANSITS

solid angle of planet =

solid angle of sphere =

probability of transit

http://ay20class.blogspot.com/2011/11/transit-probability.html


A few acknowledgements

You can also download Kepler Times Series files to analyze yourselves:


Thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention!

Hope Concannon

[email protected]


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