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Warm-Up 12/16/13. Teach the Teacher: Tell me about a time you felt out of place. Review: Which group has full outer orbitals? . Groups of elements and why they bond. Flash Card . On the front write: Luster. On the back write: Shininess . Flash Card . On the front write:

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Warm up 12 16 13
Warm-Up 12/16/13

  • Teach the Teacher: Tell me about a time you felt out of place.

  • Review: Which group has full outer orbitals?

Flash card
Flash Card

  • On the front write:

  • Luster

  • On the back write:

  • Shininess

Flash card1
Flash Card

  • On the front write:

  • Malleable

  • On the back write:

  • Ability to be hammered and re-shaped

Metals major part of the group
Metals: major part of the group

  • Most elements are metals.

  • 88 elements found to the

    LEFT of the Zigzag Line

Physical properties of metals
Physical Properties Of Metals

  • Luster (shininess)

    • Good conductors of heat and electricity

    • High density (heavy for their size)

    • High melting point

    • Ductile (drawn out into thin wires)

    • Malleable (hammered into thin sheets)

Chemical properties of metals
Chemical Properties of Metals

  • Easily lose electrons (become positive ions CATIONS)

    • Corrode easily

    • React easily with other elements

Alkali metals group 1 1a ia

  • Soft metals – they can be cut with a knife

  • Most reactive of all the metals - React rapidly with oxygen and water

  • Do not occur in nature in their elemental form

  • Stored under oil

  • Will form a +1 ion by giving away their one valence electron

Alkaline earth metals group 2 2a iia
Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 2A & IIA

  • Do not occur in nature in their elemental form

  • Will form a +2 ion by giving away their two valence electrons

  • Uses

    • Fireworks

    • Ca – Bones & Teeth

    • Ba - X-Rays

Transition elements group 3 12
Transition Elements Group 3-12

  • These elements are most familiar to the public because they are found in nature in their elemental form

  • Often form colored compounds

    • Chromium precious gems (emeralds and rubies)

    • Cadmium yellow

    • Cobalt blue

Inner transition metals lanthanides and actinides
INNER Transition Metals: Lanthanides and Actinides

  • Lanthanides

    • Elements 58 – 71

    • Elements used in motion pictures industry

    • Produce colors you see on the TV


  • Elements 90 – 103

  • All actinides are radioactive and unstable

  • Thorium and Uranium are found in the earth’s crust

  • Uranium – nuclear reactors


  • Found to the RIGHT of the zigzag line

    • Hydrogen is considered a nonmetal

  • Group 18 – Noble Gasses are the only group that consists of all nonmetals

  • Group 17 - Halogens

Non metals cont
Non-metals cont.

  • Properties

    • Nonmetals gain electrons to become stable – anions

    • Most are gasses at room temp

    • Not malleable

    • Not ductile

    • Poor conductors of heat and electricity

    • No Luster – Dull

  • Important nonmetals in Humans

    • Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen & Oxygen

Metalloids synthetic elements
Metalloids & Synthetic Elements

  • Metalloids conduct electricity better than nonmetals, but not as well as metals.

  • Synthetic elements do not occur naturally (they are man-made)

  • All elements with an atomic number higher than uranium (92) were made by scientists and most are radioactive.

Warm up 12 17 13
Warm-up 12/17/13

  • Teach the Teacher: What are some magazines you like to read/check out?

  • Review: What kind of ion is positive?

Flash cards
Flash Cards

  • On the Front Write :

  • Subscript

  • On the Back Write:

  • Number below letters (submarine) tell you the number of atoms in a compound

Flash card2
Flash Card

  • On one side:

  • Superscript

  • On the other side:

  • Numbers written above the letters (superman)

  • Na2+

Mapping the pt
Mapping the PT

  • Outline with a different colored marker for each one:

    Alkali metals-group 1

    Alkali earth metals-group 2

    Transition metals – group 3-12

    Noble Gases- group 18

    Lanthanides- labeled

    Actinides – labeled

Element bonding puzzle card
Element Bonding Puzzle Card

  • 1. Besides shape and color, what else do all the white pieces have in common?

  • 2. Besides shape and color, what do all the yellow pieces have in common?

  • 3. Build 2 rectangles using these rules:

    • must use both white and yellow pieces

    • No more then two different elements

    • Write down the name of what you build

  • 4.What is the total charge of each rectangle (combine both charges)

  • Electron dot diagrams of selected elements
    Electron Dot Diagrams of Selected Elements

    • Electron Dot uses the symbol of the element and dots to illustrate the number of electrons in the outermost energy level

    • Elements of the same group (column) have the same number of valence electrons

    The story of bending the rules
    The Story of Bending the Rules

    • Normal atom=

      • # Protons= # electrons

      • Then it’s a neutral atom

    • *Remember that all atoms want to have orbital shells be full

      • Full shells=

        • 1storbital: 2 electrons

        • 2nd orbital: 8 electrons

    Trying to get full
    Trying to Get Full

    • Example: Sodium (Na) has 11 electrons

      • (Draw lewis dot diagram here)

    • Wants to get rid of 1 valence electron to be full

    • Chlorine has 7 valence electrons

      • (Draw lewis dot diagram here)

    Not your normal atom
    Not Your Normal Atom

    • Na now has 10 electrons

      • So does Ne, but Ne has 10 protons and Na still has 11 protons

      • But not normal Na atom

    • Now Na is Na+

      • An ion

    • Now orbitals are full and atom is electrically charged

      • AND ATTRACTIVE to other elements like Cl


    • atom or molecule with missing or extra electrons

      • Ions are charged particles (positive or negative)

    • charge = #protons - #electrons

    • charge given as a trailing superscript

    • positive ions are cationsX+

    • negative ions are anionsX–

    Warm up 12 18 13
    Warm-up 12/18/13

    • Teach the teacher questions: If you could start a band what kind of band would you start, what would you call it, and what part would have in it (play guitar, sing, ect.).

    • Review: What are some characteristics of metals?

    Warm up 12 19 13
    Warm-up 12/19/13

    • Teach the Sub: What are some holiday traditions you have during the holidays.

    • Review: The 2 in H2O is that a subscript or a superscript?

    Warm up 12 20 13
    Warm-up 12/20/13

    • Teach the Teacher: Take a vote, would you rather be an elf or a reindeer? Why?

    • Review: Describe the Bohr Model.

    Warm up 1 2 14
    Warm-up 1/2/14

    • Teach the Teacher: What was the best part about the break?

    • Review: Tell me as many things as you can about me (ms. Uhre)

    Flash card3
    Flash Card

    • On one side:

    • Ionic Bond

    • On the other side:

    • A bond formed by attraction of a cation (+) and an anion (-)

    Chem idol round 4
    Chem Idol round 4

    • Alkaline Earth Metals by Dan Daly

    • Alkali Metals Parody by Zach and Company

    • The Bonding Song By Shigotawang

    Dice it
    Dice It:

    • Anything in this room

    Dice it1
    Dice It

    • Element symbols that are non-metals

    Dice it2
    Dice It

    • The # number/mass of protons and neutrons

    Dice it3
    Dice It:

    • Element names that have 2,4,or 6 valence electrons

    Dice it4
    Dice It:

    • Elements that are anions

    Dice it5
    Dice It:

    • Elements that are cations

    Dice it6
    Dice It

    • Elements that have a ionic charge of +1, -1, 0

    Dice it7
    Dice It:

    • Elements that take in electrons

    Warm up 1 3 14
    Warm-up 1/3/14

    • Teach the Teacher: What is the best New Year’s resolution you have/have heard of?

    • Review: An isotope is an atom with a different number of what? (Pull out PT and check this….)

    Chemical bonds

    Chemical Bonds

    Bonding isn’t just for people.

    Why do atoms form compounds
    Why do atoms form compounds?


    • What does stable mean to an atom?

      • Full set of valence electrons

      • Atoms want to have the electron configuration of a noble gas

      • Atoms will gain, lose or share electrons in order to obtain a full set of valence electrons

    Combining elements

    Combining Elements

    • The chemical & physical properties of the elements are different than the properties of the compound they make up

    • Na + Cl2→ NaCl

    • Reaction of Sodium with Chlorine & Hydrogen with Oxygen

    Types of bonds
    Types of Bonds

    • Ionic Bonds

      • Contain a metal & a nonmetal (at least 1 of each)

      • Electrons are gained or lost

      • Ex. Salt, NaCl

    • Covalent Bonds

      • Contain 2 or more nonmetals or hydrogen

      • Electrons are shared

      • Ex. Water, H2O

    Ionic bonding
    Ionic Bonding

    • In an ionic bond, one atoms gives electrons to another atom.

    • When atoms combine this way, it is called a formula unit.

      • Ex. NaCl is a formula unit

    • The charge of a formula unit is always 0.

    • The positive and negative charges must always balance each other.

    Warm up 12 13 12
    Warm-up 12/13/12

    • Teach the Teacher: What is the best school lunch?

    • Review: Finish this sentence: All ________ are cations.


    • Chemical Formula—tells what elements a compound contains and the exact number of the atoms of each element.

      • Ex. NaCl has 1 atom of sodium & 1 atom of chlorine

      • Ex. H2O has 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen.

    • A subscript (small # written below) is written after a symbol to tell how many atoms of that element are in the compound.

    Rules for formulas
    Rules for Formulas

    • Write the cation (metal) first. Write the anion (nonmetal) second.

    • The net ionic charge is zero.

    • Use subscripts to indicate multiple ions.

    • Write the formula unit in the lowest whole number ratio.

    A trick for formula units
    A trick for formula units

    • Write both ions with their charges as superscripts. Cu3+ & O2-

    • Crisscross the charges to make the subscripts in the formula

      • Do not put + or – in the formula

    • Cu3+ & O2-


    Silver chloride
    Silver Chloride




    Zinc phosphide
    Zinc Phosphide




    Aluminum oxide
    Aluminum Oxide




    Types of bonds1
    Types of Bonds


      • between metals & nonmetals

      • Electrons form a give take relationship

        • metals give e- (cation)

        • nonmetal take e- (anion)

      • Held together by attraction of opposite charges


    Polyatomic ions
    Polyatomic Ions

    • Polyatomic Ions=molecule with more then one element that has a charge

    • The prefix poly- means many in Greek.

    Polyatomic ions1
    Polyatomic Ions

    • Ion consisting of a molecule with many covalently bonded atoms

    • Act as a single unit

    Multiple oxidation numbers
    Multiple Oxidation Numbers

    • Some metals (other metals & transition metals) can have more than 1 oxidation number.

    • If an element can have more than 1 oxidation number, the charge of the ion is written as a roman numeral in parentheses.

      • Ex. Copper (I) ion is Cu1+

      • Copper (II) ion is Cu2+

    Mistakes to avoid
    Mistakes to Avoid

    • Roman numerals are not written in the formula

    • Charges are not written in the formula

    • Don’t drop polyatomic subscripts

    • Hydroxide, OH, needs parentheses to indicate multiples.

    • Cu(II)O CuO

    • K+1Br-1KBr

    • CaNO2 Ca(NO3)2

    • CaOH2 Ca(OH)2

    Warm up 12 17 12
    Warm up-12/17/12

    • Teach the Sub: What is the hardest job you have ever had to do (chores, at school, at an actual job, etc.)?

    • Review: Impress the sub with a fact about the periodic table.

    Rules for naming
    Rules for Naming

    Binary Ionic Compounds with Group A Elements

    Write the cation name 1st

    • Cation name is the same as the element name

      Write the anion name 2nd

    • Change the ending of the element name to –ide.

    Covalent bonds
    Covalent Bonds

    • Covalent bonds share electrons

    • Composed of 2 or more nonmetals (and H)

    • Covalent compounds are called molecules

    • Molecules can be polar or nonpolar

    • Polar molecule—slightly positive and negative at parts—but overall neutral

      • e- are unevenly shared

    • Nonpolar molecule—electrons are shared equally—completely neutral

    Naming covalent compounds
    Naming Covalent Compounds

    • Mono—1

    • Di—2

    • Tri—3

    • Tetra—4

    • Penta—5

    • Hexa—6

    • Hepta—7

    • Octa—8

    • Nona—9

    • Deca—10

    • Use prefixes to tell how many of each element you have.

      • This is done because you can have different covalent compounds containing the same elements.

    • Change the ending of the 2nd element to -ide

      • Ex. N2O is dinitrogen monoxide.

    • You can leave off the prefix mono- on the first element.

      • Ex. NO2 is nitrogen dioxide

        • Not mononitrogen dioxide

    Formulas for covalent compounds
    Formulas for Covalent Compounds

    • Use the prefixes as the subscript in the formula.

    • Ex. Phosphorus Trichloride

      • PCl3

    • DinitrogenTetrafluoride

      • N2F4

    Warm up 1 3 13
    Warm-up 1/3/13

    • Teach the Teacher: What was the best thing done over the break?

    • Review: List as many people as you can in the class.