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Warm-Up 12/16/13. Teach the Teacher: Tell me about a time you felt out of place. Review: Which group has full outer orbitals? . Groups of elements and why they bond. Flash Card . On the front write: Luster. On the back write: Shininess . Flash Card . On the front write:

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warm up 12 16 13
Warm-Up 12/16/13
  • Teach the Teacher: Tell me about a time you felt out of place.
  • Review: Which group has full outer orbitals?
flash card
Flash Card
  • On the front write:
  • Luster
  • On the back write:
  • Shininess
flash card1
Flash Card
  • On the front write:
  • Malleable
  • On the back write:
  • Ability to be hammered and re-shaped
metals major part of the group
Metals: major part of the group
  • Most elements are metals.
  • 88 elements found to the

LEFT of the Zigzag Line

physical properties of metals
Physical Properties Of Metals
  • Luster (shininess)
    • Good conductors of heat and electricity
    • High density (heavy for their size)
    • High melting point
    • Ductile (drawn out into thin wires)
    • Malleable (hammered into thin sheets)
chemical properties of metals
Chemical Properties of Metals
  • Easily lose electrons (become positive ions CATIONS)
    • Corrode easily
    • React easily with other elements
alkali metals group 1 1a ia
ALKALI METALS – GROUP 1, 1A & IA
  • Soft metals – they can be cut with a knife
  • Most reactive of all the metals - React rapidly with oxygen and water
  • Do not occur in nature in their elemental form
  • Stored under oil
  • Will form a +1 ion by giving away their one valence electron
alkaline earth metals group 2 2a iia
Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 2A & IIA
  • Do not occur in nature in their elemental form
  • Will form a +2 ion by giving away their two valence electrons
  • Uses
    • Fireworks
    • Ca – Bones & Teeth
    • Ba - X-Rays
transition elements group 3 12
Transition Elements Group 3-12
  • These elements are most familiar to the public because they are found in nature in their elemental form
  • Often form colored compounds
    • Chromium precious gems (emeralds and rubies)
    • Cadmium yellow
    • Cobalt blue
inner transition metals lanthanides and actinides
INNER Transition Metals: Lanthanides and Actinides
  • Lanthanides
    • Elements 58 – 71
    • Elements used in motion pictures industry
    • Produce colors you see on the TV
actinides
Actinides
  • Elements 90 – 103
  • All actinides are radioactive and unstable
  • Thorium and Uranium are found in the earth’s crust
  • Uranium – nuclear reactors
nonmetals
NONMETALS
  • Found to the RIGHT of the zigzag line
    • Hydrogen is considered a nonmetal
  • Group 18 – Noble Gasses are the only group that consists of all nonmetals
  • Group 17 - Halogens
non metals cont
Non-metals cont.
  • Properties
    • Nonmetals gain electrons to become stable – anions
    • Most are gasses at room temp
    • Not malleable
    • Not ductile
    • Poor conductors of heat and electricity
    • No Luster – Dull
  • Important nonmetals in Humans
    • Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen & Oxygen
metalloids synthetic elements
Metalloids & Synthetic Elements
  • Metalloids conduct electricity better than nonmetals, but not as well as metals.
  • Synthetic elements do not occur naturally (they are man-made)
  • All elements with an atomic number higher than uranium (92) were made by scientists and most are radioactive.
warm up 12 17 13
Warm-up 12/17/13
  • Teach the Teacher: What are some magazines you like to read/check out?
  • Review: What kind of ion is positive?
flash cards
Flash Cards
  • On the Front Write :
  • Subscript
  • On the Back Write:
  • Number below letters (submarine) tell you the number of atoms in a compound
flash card2
Flash Card
  • On one side:
  • Superscript
  • On the other side:
  • Numbers written above the letters (superman)
  • Na2+
mapping the pt
Mapping the PT
  • Outline with a different colored marker for each one:

Alkali metals-group 1

Alkali earth metals-group 2

Transition metals – group 3-12

Noble Gases- group 18

Lanthanides- labeled

Actinides – labeled

element bonding puzzle card
Element Bonding Puzzle Card
  • 1. Besides shape and color, what else do all the white pieces have in common?
  • 2. Besides shape and color, what do all the yellow pieces have in common?
  • 3. Build 2 rectangles using these rules:
      • must use both white and yellow pieces
      • No more then two different elements
      • Write down the name of what you build
  • 4.What is the total charge of each rectangle (combine both charges)
electron dot diagrams of selected elements
Electron Dot Diagrams of Selected Elements
  • Electron Dot uses the symbol of the element and dots to illustrate the number of electrons in the outermost energy level
  • Elements of the same group (column) have the same number of valence electrons
the story of bending the rules
The Story of Bending the Rules
  • Normal atom=
    • # Protons= # electrons
    • Then it’s a neutral atom
  • *Remember that all atoms want to have orbital shells be full
    • Full shells=
      • 1storbital: 2 electrons
      • 2nd orbital: 8 electrons
trying to get full
Trying to Get Full
  • Example: Sodium (Na) has 11 electrons
    • (Draw lewis dot diagram here)
  • Wants to get rid of 1 valence electron to be full
  • Chlorine has 7 valence electrons
    • (Draw lewis dot diagram here)
not your normal atom
Not Your Normal Atom
  • Na now has 10 electrons
    • So does Ne, but Ne has 10 protons and Na still has 11 protons
    • But not normal Na atom
  • Now Na is Na+
    • An ion
  • Now orbitals are full and atom is electrically charged
    • AND ATTRACTIVE to other elements like Cl
slide26
Ions
  • atom or molecule with missing or extra electrons
    • Ions are charged particles (positive or negative)
  • charge = #protons - #electrons
  • charge given as a trailing superscript
  • positive ions are cationsX+
  • negative ions are anionsX–
slide27

Metals= + cations

  • Non metals= - anions
warm up 12 18 13
Warm-up 12/18/13
  • Teach the teacher questions: If you could start a band what kind of band would you start, what would you call it, and what part would have in it (play guitar, sing, ect.).
  • Review: What are some characteristics of metals?
warm up 12 19 13
Warm-up 12/19/13
  • Teach the Sub: What are some holiday traditions you have during the holidays.
  • Review: The 2 in H2O is that a subscript or a superscript?
warm up 12 20 13
Warm-up 12/20/13
  • Teach the Teacher: Take a vote, would you rather be an elf or a reindeer? Why?
  • Review: Describe the Bohr Model.
warm up 1 2 14
Warm-up 1/2/14
  • Teach the Teacher: What was the best part about the break?
  • Review: Tell me as many things as you can about me (ms. Uhre)
flash card3
Flash Card
  • On one side:
  • Ionic Bond
  • On the other side:
  • A bond formed by attraction of a cation (+) and an anion (-)
chem idol round 4
Chem Idol round 4
  • Alkaline Earth Metals by Dan Daly
  • Alkali Metals Parody by Zach and Company
  • The Bonding Song By Shigotawang
dice it
Dice It:
  • Anything in this room
dice it1
Dice It
  • Element symbols that are non-metals
dice it2
Dice It
  • The # number/mass of protons and neutrons
dice it3
Dice It:
  • Element names that have 2,4,or 6 valence electrons
dice it4
Dice It:
  • Elements that are anions
dice it5
Dice It:
  • Elements that are cations
dice it6
Dice It
  • Elements that have a ionic charge of +1, -1, 0
dice it7
Dice It:
  • Elements that take in electrons
warm up 1 3 14
Warm-up 1/3/14
  • Teach the Teacher: What is the best New Year’s resolution you have/have heard of?
  • Review: An isotope is an atom with a different number of what? (Pull out PT and check this….)
chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Bonding isn’t just for people.

why do atoms form compounds
Why do atoms form compounds?
  • TO BECOME STABLE!!
  • What does stable mean to an atom?
    • Full set of valence electrons
    • Atoms want to have the electron configuration of a noble gas
    • Atoms will gain, lose or share electrons in order to obtain a full set of valence electrons
combining elements

Combining Elements
  • The chemical & physical properties of the elements are different than the properties of the compound they make up
  • Na + Cl2→ NaCl
  • Reaction of Sodium with Chlorine & Hydrogen with Oxygen
types of bonds
Types of Bonds
  • Ionic Bonds
    • Contain a metal & a nonmetal (at least 1 of each)
    • Electrons are gained or lost
    • Ex. Salt, NaCl
  • Covalent Bonds
    • Contain 2 or more nonmetals or hydrogen
    • Electrons are shared
    • Ex. Water, H2O
ionic bonding
Ionic Bonding
  • In an ionic bond, one atoms gives electrons to another atom.
  • When atoms combine this way, it is called a formula unit.
    • Ex. NaCl is a formula unit
  • The charge of a formula unit is always 0.
  • The positive and negative charges must always balance each other.
warm up 12 13 12
Warm-up 12/13/12
  • Teach the Teacher: What is the best school lunch?
  • Review: Finish this sentence: All ________ are cations.
formulas
Formulas
  • Chemical Formula—tells what elements a compound contains and the exact number of the atoms of each element.
    • Ex. NaCl has 1 atom of sodium & 1 atom of chlorine
    • Ex. H2O has 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen.
  • A subscript (small # written below) is written after a symbol to tell how many atoms of that element are in the compound.
rules for formulas
Rules for Formulas
  • Write the cation (metal) first. Write the anion (nonmetal) second.
  • The net ionic charge is zero.
  • Use subscripts to indicate multiple ions.
  • Write the formula unit in the lowest whole number ratio.
a trick for formula units
A trick for formula units
  • Write both ions with their charges as superscripts. Cu3+ & O2-
  • Crisscross the charges to make the subscripts in the formula
    • Do not put + or – in the formula
  • Cu3+ & O2-

Cu2O3

silver chloride
Silver Chloride

Ag+1

Cl-1

AgCl

zinc phosphide
Zinc Phosphide

Zn+2

P-3

Zn3P2

aluminum oxide
Aluminum Oxide

Al+3

O-2

Al2O3

types of bonds1
Types of Bonds
  • IONIC BONDS
    • between metals & nonmetals
    • Electrons form a give take relationship
      • metals give e- (cation)
      • nonmetal take e- (anion)
    • Held together by attraction of opposite charges

IONIC ANIMATION

polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions
  • Polyatomic Ions=molecule with more then one element that has a charge
  • The prefix poly- means many in Greek.
polyatomic ions1
Polyatomic Ions
  • Ion consisting of a molecule with many covalently bonded atoms
  • Act as a single unit
slide60

Polyatomic ions is also referred as a radical ion

  • Name ends in –ate & -ite
  • -ide usually indicates binary
multiple oxidation numbers
Multiple Oxidation Numbers
  • Some metals (other metals & transition metals) can have more than 1 oxidation number.
  • If an element can have more than 1 oxidation number, the charge of the ion is written as a roman numeral in parentheses.
    • Ex. Copper (I) ion is Cu1+
    • Copper (II) ion is Cu2+
mistakes to avoid
Mistakes to Avoid
  • Roman numerals are not written in the formula
  • Charges are not written in the formula
  • Don’t drop polyatomic subscripts
  • Hydroxide, OH, needs parentheses to indicate multiples.
  • Cu(II)O CuO
  • K+1Br-1KBr
  • CaNO2 Ca(NO3)2
  • CaOH2 Ca(OH)2
warm up 12 17 12
Warm up-12/17/12
  • Teach the Sub: What is the hardest job you have ever had to do (chores, at school, at an actual job, etc.)?
  • Review: Impress the sub with a fact about the periodic table.
rules for naming
Rules for Naming

Binary Ionic Compounds with Group A Elements

Write the cation name 1st

  • Cation name is the same as the element name

Write the anion name 2nd

  • Change the ending of the element name to –ide.
covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • Covalent bonds share electrons
  • Composed of 2 or more nonmetals (and H)
  • Covalent compounds are called molecules
  • Molecules can be polar or nonpolar
  • Polar molecule—slightly positive and negative at parts—but overall neutral
    • e- are unevenly shared
  • Nonpolar molecule—electrons are shared equally—completely neutral
naming covalent compounds
Naming Covalent Compounds
  • Mono—1
  • Di—2
  • Tri—3
  • Tetra—4
  • Penta—5
  • Hexa—6
  • Hepta—7
  • Octa—8
  • Nona—9
  • Deca—10
  • Use prefixes to tell how many of each element you have.
    • This is done because you can have different covalent compounds containing the same elements.
  • Change the ending of the 2nd element to -ide
    • Ex. N2O is dinitrogen monoxide.
  • You can leave off the prefix mono- on the first element.
    • Ex. NO2 is nitrogen dioxide
      • Not mononitrogen dioxide
formulas for covalent compounds
Formulas for Covalent Compounds
  • Use the prefixes as the subscript in the formula.
  • Ex. Phosphorus Trichloride
    • PCl3
  • DinitrogenTetrafluoride
    • N2F4
warm up 1 3 13
Warm-up 1/3/13
  • Teach the Teacher: What was the best thing done over the break?
  • Review: List as many people as you can in the class.
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