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Dinners. L O O K I N G. WHERE THE. L I G H T. with the. Reader. The Psychology of Happiness. #2. IS GOOD. www.theseymourreader.com. Ed Diener. Martin Seligman. Scientists can measure people’s happiness. We finally can do it. Happiness is the goal of public policy.

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The Psychology of Happiness

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Dinners

L

O

O

K

I

N

G

WHERE

THE

L

I

G

H

T

with the

Reader

The

Psychology

of Happiness

#2

IS

GOOD

www.theseymourreader.com


Ed Diener

Martin Seligman


Scientists can measure people’s happiness.

We finally can do it

Happiness is the goal of public policy.

We’ve always meant to do it

Therefore, happiness should be a primary policy focus.

So let’s do it!


The big idea

Unified, comprehensive science of happiness

Policies to increase public happiness


The Philosophy

of Happiness

Scientists can measure people’s happiness.

Happiness is the goal of public policy.

Therefore, happiness should be a primary policy focus.


The Economics

of Happiness

16 April

Scientists can measure people’s happiness.

Happiness is the goal of public policy.

Therefore, happiness should be a primary policy focus.


The Psychology

of Happiness

Scientists can measure people’s happiness.

Happiness is the goal of public policy.

Therefore, happiness should be a primary policy focus.


L

O

O

K

I

N

G

WHERE

THE

L

I

G

H

T

The Psychology

of Happiness

IS

GOOD


The Psychology

of Happiness

Limits of measurement

Scientists can measure people’s happiness.

Limits of scientific objectivity

Limits of democratic neutrality


Unified, comprehensive science of happiness

Limits of measurement

These limitscompromise this goal

Limits of scientific objectivity

Limits of democratic neutrality


Scientists can measure people’s happiness.


Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

Scientists can measure people’s happiness.


Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

PLEASURE

SATISFACTION


Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

PLEASURE

Daniel Kahneman


Choose Your Colonoscopy!

INTENSITY

Daniel Kahneman

INTENSITY

DURATION

DURATION


Choose Your Colonoscopy!

#1

INTENSITY

#2

INTENSITY

DURATION

DURATION


Choose Your Colonoscopy!

Less momentary pain

#1

INTENSITY

#2

INTENSITY

DURATION

More highly rated

DURATION


Choose Your Colonoscopy!

The experiencing self

#1

INTENSITY

#2

INTENSITY

DURATION

DURATION


Choose Your Colonoscopy!

The experiencing self

#1

INTENSITY

#2

INTENSITY

DURATION

The remembering self

DURATION


The experiencing self

DESIRE TO STOP

DURATION


The experiencing self

DESIRE TO STOP

DURATION


The experiencing self

DESIRE TO STOP

“Objective Unhappiness”

DURATION


The experiencing self

DESIRE TO CONTINUE

“Objective Happiness”

DURATION


The remembering self

Peak-End Rule

DESIRE TO STOP

DURATION


The remembering self

DESIRE TO STOP

“Subjective Unhappiness”

DURATION


The remembering self

DESIRE TO CONTINUE

“Subjective Happiness”

DURATION


Choose Your Colonoscopy!

The experiencing self

INTENSITY

INTENSITY

DURATION

The remembering self

DURATION


Choose Your Colonoscopy!

The experiencing self

Lower Objective Unhappiness

INTENSITY

Lower Subjective Unhappiness

INTENSITY

DURATION

The remembering self

DURATION


Choose Your Colonoscopy!

The experiencing self

AREA!

Lower Objective Unhappiness

INTENSITY

Lower Subjective Unhappiness

INTENSITY

DURATION

The remembering self

SHAPE!

DURATION


The experiencing self

The remembering self


The experiencing self

WHAT HAPPINESS REALLY IS

“Objective Happiness Theory”


The Area Under the Curve

DESIRE TO CONTINUE

DURATION

“Objective Happiness Theory”


DESIRE TO CONTINUE

DURATION


Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

Scientists can measure people’s happiness.

ADD

Jeremy Bentham

ADD


Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

PLEASURE

Daniel Kahneman


Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

SATISFACTION

Ed Diener


States of Mind:

Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

Domain satisfaction

Global satisfaction

Positive emotion

Positive mood

SATISFACTION

Ed Diener


Experience-Sampling Method

How happy are you?

How intense are your positive emotional experiences?

How frequent are your positive emotional experiences?

Greater correlation with global measures


Frequency is #1

INTENSITY

DURATION


States of Mind:

Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

Domain satisfaction

Global satisfaction

Positive emotion

Positive mood

SATISFACTION

Ed Diener


The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)

____ In most ways my life is close

to my ideal

____ The conditions of my life are

excellent.

____ I am satisfied with my life.

____ So far I have gotten the

important things I want in life.

____ If I could live my life over, I

would change almost nothing.

  • 7 - Strongly agree

  • 6 - Agree

  • 5 - Slightly agree

  • 4 - Neither agree nor disagree

  • 3 - Slightly disagree

  • 2 - Disagree

  • 1 - Strongly disagree


Limits of measurement

Limits of scientific objectivity

Limits of democratic neutrality


Limits of measurement

What happens when you ask people how happy they are?

Fritz Strack

Norbert Schwarz


Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are these days?

Context-independent

JUDGMENT

Very happy

Pretty happy

Not too happy

Context-independent

REPORT


Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are these days?

Very happy

Pretty happy

Not too happy

How “should” I answer?

To whom do I answer?

Who is visible when I answer?

Context-independent

REPORT


Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are these days?

Context-independent

JUDGMENT

Very happy

Pretty happy

Not too happy

Default: current mood


Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are these days?

Context-independent

JUDGMENT

Very happy

Pretty happy

Not too happy

Default: current mood

Life items compared


Life “these days” …

… or outside?

… does this fall inside


Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are these days?

Context-independent

JUDGMENT

Very happy

Pretty happy

Not too happy

Default: current mood

Life items compared

Survey factors


How many dates have you had recently?

How happy are you these days?

  • How happy are you these days?

  • How many dates have you had recently?


Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are these days?

Very happy

Pretty happy

Not too happy

Why is this so hard?


Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are these days?

My hypothesis

Very happy

Pretty happy

Not too happy


The Very Earnest

Often =

current mood + survey design + reporting norms

Of Very Serious Things

Happiness

Some other thing


How happy are you?


Limits of measurement

Subjective Well-Being (SWB)

ADD

ADD


Limits of measurement

Concept

ADD

ADD


Limits of measurement

Limits of scientific objectivity

Limits of democratic neutrality


Unified, comprehensive science of happiness

Policies to increase public happiness


Unification within measures

Unified, comprehensive science of happiness

Unification between measures


Unification within measures

The Affect

Balance Scale


The Affect

Balance Scale


The Affect

Balance Scale


Combination


Commensurability


Combination

Commensurability

Satisfaction With Life Scale

The Scores

The Questions

Score from 5 to 35

____ In most ways my life is close to my ideal.

____ The conditions of my life are excellent.

____ I am satisfied with my life.

____ So far I have gotten the important things I want in life.

____ If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing.

  • 7 - Strongly agree

  • 6 - Agree

  • 5 - Slightly agree

  • 4 - Neither agree nor disagree

  • 3 - Slightly disagree

  • 2 - Disagree

  • 1 - Strongly disagree


Combination

Unification within measures

Commensurability

multi-dimensional

Satisfaction

Positive Affect

multi-dimensional


Combination

Unification within measures

Commensurability

multi-dimensional

Satisfaction

Engagement

Unification between measures

Positive Affect

Pleasure


Combination

Unification within measures

Commensurability

These issues will be different for different people …

Unification between measures

… because different people have different values.


Combination

Unification within measures

Commensurability

Unification is value-laden.

It is not strictly technical.

Unification between measures


Combination

Commensurability

Martin Seligman

Ed Diener


Combination

Commensurability

Martin Seligman

Ed Diener

Seen as technicalissues.


Unified, comprehensive science of happiness

Policies to increase public happiness


Unified, comprehensive science of happiness

Limits of scientific objectivity


Limits of democratic neutrality

Policies to increase public happiness


Ed Diener


Ed Diener


Happiness is a state of mind

I am as happy as I think I am

Content

Criterion


Happiness is a state of mind

I am as happy as I think I am

Content

Criterion

Limits of democratic neutrality


Happiness is a state of mind

I am as happy as I think I am

Content

Criterion

Limits of democratic neutrality

No

Yes

These issues will be different for different people …

No

Yes

… because different people have different values.


Happiness is a state of mind

I am as happy as I think I am

Content

Criterion

Limits of democratic neutrality

No

Yes

SWB is value-laden.

No

Yes

SWB is not strictly neutral.


Unified, comprehensive science of happiness

Policies to increase public happiness


These limitscompromise this goal

Unified, comprehensive science of happiness

Limits of measurement

Limits of scientific objectivity

Limits of democratic neutrality


Dinners

L

O

O

K

I

N

G

WHERE

THE

L

I

G

H

T

with the

Reader

The

Psychology

of Happiness

#2

IS

GOOD

www.theseymourreader.com


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