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Ming and Qing Dynasties. China Says to the West: We Have Nothing to Learn from You. China under the Ming Dynasty. China under the Ming Dynasty. Ming and Qing Dynasties. I. Politics II. Cultural/Intellectual III. Society IV. Economics V. China and the West. I. Politics.

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Ming and Qing Dynasties

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Ming and Qing Dynasties

China Says to the West: We Have Nothing to Learn from You


China under the Ming Dynasty


China under the Ming Dynasty


Ming and Qing Dynasties

  • I. Politics

  • II. Cultural/Intellectual

  • III. Society

  • IV. Economics

  • V. China and the West


I. Politics

  • A. Ming (= Bright) Dynasty (1368–1644)

  • 1. Hongwu (Hung-wu) (1368–1398)

  • a. overthrow of Yuan dynasty (1368)

  • b. contempt of Confucian scholar-administrators

  • 2. Yongle (Yung-le) (1402–1424)

  • a. journeys of Zhenghe (Cheng Ho) (1405–1433)

  • b. opening of Grand Canal (1415)


Hongwu (Hung-wu) (1368–1398)


Yongle (Yung-le) (1402–1424)


Imperial Canal


Imperial Canal at Beijing


I. Politics (continued)

  • A. Ming (= Bright) Dynasty (1368–1644) (continued)

  • 3. successors

  • a. ended foreign exploration (1433)

  • b. Japanese pirates (wako)/Ming imperial edict (1456)

  • c. forbade Chinese to travel abroad (early 16th century)

  • d. loss of vassal states of Annam, Tibet, and Mongolia

  • e. loss of northern Manchuria (1599)

  • f. defense of Korea (1592–1597)


I. Politics (continued)

  • B. Qing (Ch’ing) (= Pure) (1644–1911)

  • 1. Nurhachu declared dynasty in Manchuria (1616)

  • 2. Abahai (Tai tsung) (r. 1627–1643)

  • a. Conquered Korea (1627)

  • b. Beseiged Beijing (1643)


I. Politics (continued)

  • B. Qing (Ch’ing) (= Pure) (1644–1911)

  • 3. Kangxi (K’ang Hsi) (r. 1661–1722)

  • a. San-fan War (1673–1681)

  • b. last Ming general defeated (1683)

  • c. Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689)

  • d. forbade teaching of Christianity (1715)


The Kangxi Emperor as a Young Man


The Kangxi Emperor on a Hunt


The Kangxi Emperor on Tour


The Kangxi Emperor Returning from Southern Tour


The Kangxi Emperor Late in His Reign


Emperor of China: Self-Portrait of Kang-Hsi, ed. Jonathan D. Spence

  • – relationship between hunting and war

  • – philosophy of education

  • – opinion of Westerners

  • – view of Western mathematics

  • – assessment of Galdan

  • – assessment of his own reign


I. Politics (continued)

  • 4. Qianlong (Ch’ien-lung) (r. 1736–1796 [1799])

  • a. “We have no need of anyone. Go home! Take back your gifts.”

  • b. Letter to King George III (1793)


The Qianlong (Ch’ien-lung) Emperor(r. 1736–1796 [1799])


Lord Macartney and the Qianlong Emperor


The Qianlong Emperor Practicing Calligraphy


II. Cultural/Intellectual

  • A. Confucianism (civil or religious?)

  • 1. Harmony and moral order

  • 2. Confucian relationships

  • a. Father – Son

  • b. Ruler – Minister

  • c. Husband – Wife

  • d. Elder Brother – Younger Brother

  • e. Friend – Friend

  • B. Buddhism


II. Cultural/Intellectual (continued)

  • C. Jesuit Influence

  • 1. Francis Xavier (1506–1552)

  • 2. Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) [Li Madou] — Journals

  • 3. Adam Schall (1591–1666) — dynastic calendar reform

  • 4. Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–1688) — almanac, instruments, and perpetual calendar


Francis Xavier (1506–1552)


Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) [Li Madou]


Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) [Li Madou]


Adam Schall (1591–1666)


III. Society

  • A. Ranking of Social Classes

  • 1. Scholar-administrators (shenshi)2. Peasants

  • 3. Artisans and craftsmen

  • 4. Merchants

  • B. Status of Women

  • C. Population


IV. Economics

  • A. Porcelain

  • 1. Blue-and-white (cobalt from Persia)

  • 2. Sweet white (tian bai)

  • 3. European imitations: Delftware and Soft-paste

  • B. Silk


Ming Porcelain Plate


Qing Vase


V. China and Europe

  • Two Approaches

  • 1. Sino-Western relations in light of Europe’s and America’s rapid development during the 19th and 20th centuries

  • 2. Study what was there already. Why is it that China could and did take this attitude Europe and America? What enabled China to be so self-confident, so culturally and politically secure?


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