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From Romulus to Romulus. The Rise and Fall of Rome. Romulus and Remus. Legendary Rome. Aeneas and Trojan Refugees settle in Italy Romulus founds Rome 753 BCE Seven Kings Tarquinius Superbus deposed Republic founded 509 BCE. The Pre-Roman World. War With Carthage.

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From Romulus to Romulus

The Rise and Fall of Rome


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Romulusand Remus


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Legendary Rome

  • Aeneas and Trojan Refugees settle in Italy

  • Romulus founds Rome 753 BCE

  • Seven Kings

  • Tarquinius Superbus deposed

  • Republic founded 509 BCE



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War With Carthage

  • 264-241 BCE: Rome wins control of Sicily

  • 238 BCE Rome takes advantage of revolt in Carthage to seize Sardinia

  • 218-201 BCE: Hannibal invades Italy, but Carthage loses Spain and N. Africa to Rome

  • 149-146 BCE: Alarmed by Carthage’s recovery, Rome launches a final war to destroy Carthage






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The Republic Crumbles

  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus try but fail to implement social reforms 130-122 BCE

  • Social War 91–88 BCE: Rest of Italy tries to secede from Rome

  • Civil War 87-81 BCE, followed by purge by Lucius Sulla

  • Catilina 63-62 BCE: Failed coup

  • First Triumvirate 60-53 BCE: Caesar, Pompey, Crassus


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Julius Caesar

  • Born 100 BCE

  • Consul 60 BCE

  • First Triumvirate 60-53 BCE: Caesar, Pompey, Crassus

  • Conquest of Gaul 58-49 BCE

  • Attempted invasion of Britain 55 BCE

  • 50 BCE: Caesar-Pompey alliance breaks up

  • 50-45 BCE: Civil War; Caesar wins

  • 44 BCE: Assassinated



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Empire!

  • Civil War

    • Antony against Brutus and Cassius

    • Antony and Octavian against Brutus and Cassius

    • Octavian against Antony and Cleopatra

  • Octavian declared Emperor 27 BCE as Caesar Augustus

  • Tiberius, Nero, Caligula, Claudius

  • 68-69 CE: Year of the Four Emperors





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The Empire at its Peak

  • Flavian Dynasty

    • Vespasian (69–79)

    • Titus (79–81)

    • Domitian (81–96)

  • Five Good Emperors

    • Nerva (96-98)

    • Trajan (98-117)

    • Hadrian (117-138)

    • Antoninus Pius (138-161)

    • Marcus Aurelius (161-180)


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Near Collapse 235-284

  • 20-25 emperors and many claimants

  • Internal dissension weakens frontiers

  • Dacia (modern Romania) lost

  • Empire fractures into three parts 258-275

  • Economic stagnation and hyperinflation

  • Two tough general-emperors, Claudius Gothicus and Aurelian, stabilized Empire

  • Diocletian (284-305) created autocracy, reformed military, bought another two centuries for the Empire


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Final Decline

  • Constantine the Great (306-337)

    • Legalized Christianity 313

  • Theodosius I (379-395)

    • The last ruler of the whole empire

    • Made Christianity official 391

    • Empire divided East-West 395

  • Eastern Invasions

  • Romulus Augustulus deposed 476

  • Eastern half endures as Byzantine Empire to 1453






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Did Anyone Try to Stop It?

  • Majorianus 457-461

  • “The successor of Avitus presents the welcome discovery of a great and heroic character, such as sometimes arise, in a degenerate age, to vindicate the honor of the human species.” (Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Ch. 36)


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Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1782

Edward Gibbon suggested four reasons for fall of Rome:

  • “Immoderate greatness”--growth of bureaucracy and military

  • Wealth and luxury

  • Barbarian invasions (cause or symptom?)

  • Spread of Christianity


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Two Empires Face a Fateful Choice

  • The U.S., Northwest Ordinance- 1787

    • Provided for division of new territories into additional States

    • Admission of new States incorporated into Constitution

    • Hence no distinction whatever between original States and later States.

  • Rome - 201 BCE

    • Rome acquires Spain from Carthage

    • Rome decides to exploit the new territories as source of tax revenue and slaves.


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Results of Rome’s Choice

  • Non-stop guerrilla war in Spain for over 300 years

  • Rome abandons its traditional citizen army for a permanent standing army

  • Conscripted soldiers frequently became dispossessed while serving in Spain (Destroyed the middle class)

  • Rome's erratic but real progress toward equality reverses. Power and wealth re-concentrate in the hands of the upper class

  • Soldiers become dependent on generals for welfare and equipment