How does antiretroviral therapy affect hiv mutation and vice versa
Download
1 / 18

How Does Antiretroviral Therapy Affect HIV Mutation and Vice Versa? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 67 Views
  • Uploaded on

How Does Antiretroviral Therapy Affect HIV Mutation and Vice Versa?. Arlin Toro Devin Iimoto. Purpose. To use a case or scenario to motivate student learning about topics in biology and biochemistry courses. Courses For Which This is an Appropriate Module.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' How Does Antiretroviral Therapy Affect HIV Mutation and Vice Versa?' - scarlet-pennington


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Purpose
Purpose Versa?

  • To use a case or scenario to motivate student learning about topics in biology and biochemistry courses


Courses for which this is an appropriate module
Courses For Which This is an Appropriate Module Versa?

  • Lower level biology courses such as Introduction to Biology or a Basic Cell Biology course

  • Upper level biology courses such as Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, or Virology


The case
The Case Versa?

  • Undergraduate students are shadowing a physician working with HIV infected patients

  • Physician decides to determine the amino acid and nucleotide sequences in HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase before prescribing medication


Database for exercise
Database for Exercise Versa?

  • The HIV Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Sequence Database

  • Case study used from the database Cabana, Clotet, and Martinez. Emergence and genetic evolution of HIV-1 variants with mutations conferring resistance to multiple reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. J. Med. Virol. 59: 480-490 (1999).


Topics for student learning
Topics for Student Learning Versa?

  • DNA and protein: structure and function

  • Enzymes

  • Evolution

  • Bioinformatics

  • AIDS – HIV structure and replication and treatments


Learning process
Learning Process Versa?

  • Students will be asked the following

    • What do you already know about antiretroviral therapy and HIV mutation?

    • What questions do you have?

    • What do you need to know to understand how antiretroviral therapy and HIV are linked together?


Background information all course levels
Background Information – All course levels Versa?

  • General AIDS information

  • HIV structure

  • HIV replication

  • Immune system function


Topics for lower division courses
Topics For Lower Division Courses Versa?

  • DNA replication

  • Types of mutations

  • Impacts of those mutations

  • Epidemiology

  • Amino acids nomenclature and structure

  • Dendogram interpretation

  • Biology workbench

    • Clustal W


Exercises for lower division courses
Exercises for Lower Division Courses Versa?

  • Questions

  • Are the sequences different?

  • What mutations occurred?

  • How many nucleotides or regions have changed?

  • In mutated regions of the protein/gene, which sequences changed most?

  • Which patient had the greatest number of mutations in the protein/nucleotide sequences over time? What did you observe about the mutation rate in the patient?

  • From what you have learned from your evolution class, how does this evolution rate compare to most organisms?


  • How many amino acids are different in each sequence? Versa?

  • Select a region where you can see a change. Compare the structure of the most frequently mutated amino acid before and after mutation.

  • Based on the side chains of the amino acids, could the substitution lead to a different protein structure? Check on the other amino acids substitutions to address this question.

  • Do you think the mutations in the virus infecting patient “a” are enough to enable viral resistance to the drug that targets the viral protease.


Topics for upper division courses
Topics for Upper Division Courses Versa?

  • Michaelis-Menten kinetics

  • Michaelis-Menten inhibitors

  • Enzyme Mechanism

  • HIV-1 protease structure and function


Bioinformatics exercise for upper division courses
Bioinformatics Exercise for Upper Division Courses Versa?

  • Questions

    - Is there greater amino acid sequence variation in HIV-1 protease between patients or between time visits for an individual patient?

    - What amino acids are more likely to mutate, and what type of amino acids do they mutate to? What does this tell you about viral mutation and drug resistance?


- In which protein domains do these mutations cluster? What does that tell you about viral mutation and drug resistance?

- What are some possible structural impacts of these mutations?

- How much uncertainty is there in predicting protein secondary structure from primary structure?


10 20 30 40 50 60 What does that tell you about viral mutation and drug resistance?

....:....x....:....x....:....x....:....x....:....x....:....x

PQITLWQRPLVTIRIGGQLKEALLDTGADDTVLEDMDLPGRWKPKMIGGIGRFIKVRQYD Cab-b_1990-05

CCCCCCCEEEEEEEEECCCCCCCCCCCCCCCHHHHCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCEHHEC BPS

CCEEEEHHCEEEEEECCCHHHHHHCCCCCCEEHHHHCCCCCCCCCHECCECEEEEEEHEC D_R

CCCCCCCCCEEEEEECCCHHHHHHCCCCCHHHHHHCCCCCCCEEEEECCCCCCEEECCCC DSC

CCCCCCCCCEEEEEECCHHHHHHHHCCCCCEEEECCCCCCCCCCCCEEECCEEEEECCCC GGR

CHHEEHHCCEEEEEHCCCCHHHHHHHCCCCHHHHHHHCCCCCCCCCCCCCEEEEEECCCC GOR

CCCEEECCCCCCEECCCCCHHHHHHCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCHHHHCCC H_K

CCCCCCCCCCHHHHHHHHHHCCCCCCHHHHHHHHHCCCCCCHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHCCC K_S

CCCCCCCCCEEEEEECCCHHHHHHCCCCCCCHHHHCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCEEECCCC JOI

70 80 90 100 110 120

....:....x....:....x....:....x....:....x....:....x....:....x

QIPIEICGHKAIGTVLVGPTPINIIGRNLLTQIGCTLNF Cab-b_1990-05

CCCCCCCCCCCEEEEECEEEECCCEEEECCEEEEECCCC BPS

CECEEEECCCHEEEEEECCCCEEEECECHEEEEEEEECC D_R

CCEEEEECCCCCEEEEECCCCCEEECCCCCCCCCCCCCC DSC

EECEEECCCCCCEEEECCCCCCEEECCEEEEEECCEEEC GGR

CCCHEEECCCCCEEEEECCCCCEEEECEEEECEEEEECC GOR

CCCCCCCCCCCCEEEECCCCCCCEECCCCCCCCCCCCCC H_K

CHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHCCCCHHHHHHHHHHHHHCCCC K_S

CCCCEECCCCCCEEEECCCCCCEEECCCCCECECCCCCC JOI


Future directions
Future directions What does that tell you about viral mutation and drug resistance?

  • EVOLVE

    • Model the mutation rate

  • STELLA

    • Enzyme kinetics

    • HIV Prevalence rates

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY

    • Predictions on spread of HIV


  • Biology Workbench Programs What does that tell you about viral mutation and drug resistance?

    • TACG

    • Six Frame

  • Traducción de la actividad para estudiantes y facultad de habla hispana


ad