SS8H5a Explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churc
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WESTWARD EXPANSION . PAGE 33 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5aESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow would you explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches?. How would you explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches?.
SS8H5a Explain the establishment of the University of Georgi...

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1. SS8H5a Explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches. Concept: Individuals ? Groups - Institutions

2. WESTWARD EXPANSION PAGE 33 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5a ESSENTIAL QUESTION How would you explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches?

3. How would you explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches? University of Georgia Louisville, Georgia

4. UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA 1785: Federal US government provides money to purchase land for a public university (land grant charter) - Oldest public university 1801: Students (only all-white / all-male) attend classes in the Franklin College building 1918: Women allowed to attend university

5. How would you explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches? University of Georgia 1785: Federal US government provides money to purchase land for a public university (land grant charter) - Oldest public university 1801:Students (only all-white / all-male) attend classes in the Franklin College building 1918:Women allowed to attend university Louisville, Georgia

6. LOUISVILLE, GEORGIA Savannah was the first capital because it was the 1st permanent settlement in Georgia. Augusta became the 2nd capital but it was located too far east. So, in 1786, the Georgia legislature decided to build a new city that would serve as the 3rd capital of Georgia?s and would be centrally located for citizens to travel there. The city was named after King Louis XVI of France for his help in America?s Revolutionary War.

9. LOUISVILLE, GEORGIA Louisville was not a capital city for very long because of the state?s westward expansion due to Indian lands becoming opened for settlers. Milledgeville became the 4th capital in 1807, followed by Atlanta in 1877, the current capital. One of the most memorable events to occur in the capital city of Louisville was the burning of all of the Yazoo Land Fraud records in front of the capitol building in 1796.

10. How would you explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches? University of Georgia 1785: Federal US government provides money to purchase land for a public university (land grant charter) - Oldest public university 1801:Students (only all-white / all-male) attend classes in the Franklin College building 1918:Women allowed to attend university Louisville, Georgia 3rd capital of Georgia Centrally located (at the time) Named after King Louis XVI of France (American Revolution) Burning of the Yazoo Land Fraud records

11. SPREAD OF RELIGION IN GEORGIA The Great Revivals are periods of time in American history where there is a renewed focus on religion - personally, socially, and politically. The Methodist and Baptist denominations (branching off of the Protestant branch) were small at the time, however, the 2nd Great Awakening helped these churches grow in number and spread across the southeast United States. Interest in religion increased during this time period by allowing people to attend large camp meetings called ?revivals?, and the southeast region came to be known as The Bible Belt.

14. How would you explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches? University of Georgia 1785: Federal US government provides money to purchase land for a public university (land grant charter) - Oldest public university 1801:Students (only all-white / all-male) attend classes in the Franklin College building 1918:Women allowed to attend university Louisville, Georgia 3rd capital of Georgia Centrally located (at the time) Named after King Louis XVI of France (American Revolution) Burning of the Yazoo Land Fraud records

15. SS8H5b Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo land fraud. Concepts: Movement / Migration Rule of Law Conflict and Change

16. WESTWARD EXPANSION PAGE 34 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5b ESSENTIAL QUESTION What impact did the headright system, land lottery, and Yazoo land fraud have on Georgia?

17. What impact did the headright system, land lottery, and Yazoo land fraud have on Georgia? HEADRIGHT SYSTEM YAZOO LAND FRAUD

18. HEADRIGHT SYSTEM To attract settlers and economic development in Georgia, the government provided land to Georgians east of the Oconee River. Each white male counted as a ?head? of a family and had the ?right? to receive anywhere from 200 ? 1,000 acres of land. Farmers and ranchers were able to start up their business 1782 ? most of the land was given to Revolutionary War veterans for their service

20. What impact did the headright system, land lottery, and Yazoo land fraud have on Georgia? HEADRIGHT SYSTEM Land east of Oconee River. White male ?head? of a family had ?right? to 200 ? 1,000 acres of land. Farmers and ranchers begin businesses 1782 ? most land given to Revolutionary War veterans YAZOO LAND FRAUD

21. YAZOO LAND FRAUD Four land companies bribed the governor of Georgia and the General Assembly (legislature) to pass a bill allowing them to buy large tracts of land near the Yazoo River in Mississippi. The companies bought up to 50 million acres of land for only 1 ? cents per acre. The companies would then sell the land at much higher prices and share the profits with the legislators. When Georgia citizens found out they protested and the legislators were voted out of office.

22. YAZOO LAND FRAUD The US government solved the scandal by forcing Georgia to cede (give up) the lands west of the Chattahoochee River in exchange for $1.25 million dollars and a promise to help remove Creek and Cherokee Indians from the Georgia territories. The Yazoo Land Fraud is a reason why Georgia?s western border is shaped the way it is today.

25. What impact did the headright system, land lottery, and Yazoo land fraud have on Georgia? HEADRIGHT SYSTEM Land east of Oconee River. White male ?head? of a family had ?right? to 200 ? 1,000 acres of land. Farmers and ranchers begin businesses 1782 ? most land given to Revolutionary War veterans for their service YAZOO LAND FRAUD Land companies bribed GA government to buy land near Yazoo River Sold land and shared profits with legislators. Citizens protested and legislators voted out of office. US government forced Georgia to cede (give up) lands west of Chattahoochee River forming Georgia?s western border.

26. LAND LOTTERY WHAT: GEORGIANS WANTED TO SETTLE LANDS THAT WERE ONCE OCCUPIED BY CREEK AND CHEROKEE INDIANS. TICKETS PLACED IN TWO DRUMS, ONE WITH NAMES FOR EACH LOT AND OTHER WITH THE PERSON?S NAME. TICKET SELECTED FROM DRUM MATCHED TO NAME OF PERSON FROM OTHER DRUM. WHO: WHITE MALES, ORPHANS, AND WIDOWS ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE. DEPENDING ON AGE, WAR SERVICE, MARITAL STATUS, AND YEARS OF RESIDENCY IN THE STATE YOU COULD RECEIVE MORE TICKETS, OR CHANCES. WHEN: 1805-1833 WHERE: LANDS WEST OF THE OCONEE RIVER THAT WERE VACATED BY CREEK AND CHEROKEE INDIANS FROM LAND TREATIES AND THE OCONEE WAR AND WAR OF 1812. 3/4TH OF STATE LAND WAS GIVEN TO OVER 100,000 FAMILIES AND INDIVIDUALS WHY: GEORGIANS WANTED TO SETTLE IN LANDS VACATED BY CREEKS AND CHEROKEES IN ORDER TO CREATE COTTON AND TOBACCO PLANTATIONS

30. What impact did the headright system, land lottery, and Yazoo land fraud have on Georgia? HEADRIGHT SYSTEM Land east of Oconee River. White male ?head? of a family had ?right? to 200 ? 1,000 acres of land. Farmers and ranchers begin businesses 1782 ? most land given to Revolutionary War veterans for their service LAND LOTTERY 1805-1833 land west of Oconee River Given to citizens after removal of Creeks and Cherokees. White males, orphans, and widows received land. Power and wealth for more people Agricultural economy -tobacco and cotton plantations

31. SS8H5c Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on Georgia?s growth. Concepts: Technological Innovation Location

32. WESTWARD EXPANSION PAGE 35 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5c ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the cotton gin and railroads impact Georgia?s growth?

33. How did the cotton gin and railroads impact Georgia?s growth? COTTON GIN

34. The student will understand that technological innovations have consequences, both intended and unintended. What are some inventions that have helped society, but also hurt society? What was the intended consequence of Eli Whitney?s invention of the cotton gin? What was the unintended consequence of the cotton gin? In other words, what problems in society were created because of the invention of the cotton gin? Technological Innovation

35. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION THE COTTON GIN

36. COTTON GIN The modern cotton gin, first patented by Massachusetts native Eli Whitney while in Georgia in 1793, is a simple machine that separates cotton fibers from the seeds. The gin (short for engine) consists of wire teeth mounted on a boxed rotating cylinder that, when cranked, pulls cotton fiber through small grates to separate the seeds, while a rotating brush removes lint from the spikes to avoid jams. Its invention quickly transformed the course of agriculture in the Deep South, and in so doing deepened the reliance of southern society on slavery and the plantation system. - New Georgia Encyclodpedia

38. COTTON GIN The economic impact of Whitney's gin was vast; after its invention, the yield of raw cotton nearly doubled each decade after 1800. The gin, whose invention coincided with much of the Deep South's opening to white settlement, helped to facilitate westward expansion into these potential cotton-producing areas. By the mid-nineteenth century America was supplying three-quarters of the world's cotton. - New Georgia Encyclodpedia

41. COTTON GIN A direct result of this growth was an expansion of slavery. While the cotton gin reduced the amount of labor required to remove the seeds from the plant, it did not reduce the number of slaves needed to grow and pick the cotton. The demand for Georgia's cotton grew as new inventions such as spinning jennies and steamboats were able to weave and transport more of the crop. Although the percentage of slave population to total population remained virtually unchanged from 1790 until 1860, the number of slaves in the South increased dramatically. By the end of the antebellum era Georgia had more slaves and slaveholders than any state in the Lower South. - New Georgia Encyclodpedia

50. How did the invention of the cotton gin affect Southern life?

51. Answer: FOCUS ON AGRICULTURE, PLANTERS DEMANDED MORE LAND TO GROW COTTON, and AN INCREASE IN SLAVERY, and RACISM.

52. ELI WHITNEY Invented the cotton gin in 1795. Unintentionally, his invention would create more of a dependency on slavery in the South.

53. How did the cotton gin and railroads impact Georgia?s growth? COTTON GIN Machine that separated the cotton fibers from the seeds. Increased cotton production Made economy of the south more agricultural Led to more cotton plantations - King Cotton Led to more westward expansion Led to an increase in slavery

54. SS8H5c Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on Georgia?s growth. Concepts: Technological Innovation Location

55. WESTWARD EXPANSION PAGE 35 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5c ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the cotton gin and railroads impact Georgia?s growth?

56. How did the cotton gin and railroads impact Georgia?s growth? COTTON GIN Machine that separated the cotton fibers from the seeds. Increased cotton production Made economy of the south more agricultural Led to more cotton plantations - King Cotton Led to more westward expansion Led to an increase in slavery

57. The student will understand that technological innovations have consequences, both intended and unintended. What are some inventions that have helped society, but also hurt society? What was the intended consequence of Georgia building the railroad? What was the unintended consequence of the Georgia railroad in the town of Terminus? Technological Innovation

58. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION THE RAILROAD

59. GEORGIA RAILROAD The land constituting the city of Atlanta was once a Native American village called Standing Peachtree. The land that became the Atlanta area was taken from the Cherokee and Creeks by white settlers in 1822, with the first area settlement being Decatur. On December 21, 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad to provide a trade route to the Midwestern United States. Following the forced removal of the Cherokee Nation between 1838 and 1839 the newly depopulated area was opened for the construction of a railroad. - Wikipedia.com

61. GEORGIA RAILROAD Indian removal and the discovery of gold encouraged new settlement in the region, but it was the railroad that actually brought Atlanta into being and eventually connected it with the rest of the state and region. In 1837 engineers for the Western and Atlantic Railroad (a state-sponsored project) staked out a point on a ridge about seven miles east of the Chattahoochee River as the southern end of a rail line they planned to build south from Chattanooga, Tennessee. The town that emerged around this zero milepost was called Terminus, which literally means "end of the line." - New Georgia Encyclodpedia

63. GEORGIA RAILROAD Atlanta owes its origins to two important developments in the 1830s: the forcible removal of Native Americans (Creeks and Cherokees) from northwest Georgia and the extension of railroad lines into the state's interior. Both of these actions sparked increased settlement and development in the upper Piedmont section of the state and led to Atlanta's founding. - New Georgia Encyclodpedia

65. GEORGIA RAILROAD The area around the eastern terminus to the line began to develop first, and so the settlement was named "Terminus" in 1837. It was nicknamed Thrasherville after John Thrasher, who built homes and a general store there. The Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, J. Edgar Thomson, suggested that the area be renamed "Atlantica-Pacifica", which was quickly shortened to "Atlanta". The residents approved, and the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. - Wikipedia.com

68. How did the cotton gin and railroads impact Georgia?s growth? COTTON GIN Machine that separated the cotton fibers from the seeds. Increased cotton production Made economy of the south more agricultural Led to more cotton plantations - King Cotton Led to more westward expansion Led to an increase in slavery

69. The student will understand that technological innovations have consequences, both intended and unintended. What are some inventions that have helped society, but also hurt society? What was the intended consequence of Georgia investing a lot of money into building the town of Terminus (Atlanta) and the railroad? Technological Innovation

70. SS8H5d Analyze the events that led to the removal of Creeks and Cherokees; include the roles of Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, and the Trail of Tears. Concepts: Individuals ? Groups ? Institutions Rule of Law Movement / Migration

71. INDIAN REMOVAL PAGE 36 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5d ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did Alexander McGillivray and William McIntosh play in the removal of Creek Indians in Georgia?

72. What role did Alexander McGillivray and William McIntosh play in the removal of Creek Indians in Georgia?

73. The student will understand that when there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result. What are some examples of conflict and change that involved people and land? How were Alexander McGillivray and William McIntosh similar and different, and what were they fighting for? CONFLICT & CHANGE

74. ALEXANDER McGILLIVRAY

75. ALEXANDER McGILLIVRAY

76. ALEXANDER McGILLIVRAY

77. WILLIAM McINTOSH

78. WILLIAM McINTOSH

79. WILLIAM McINTOSH

80. What role did Alexander McGillivray and William McIntosh play in the removal of Creek Indians in Georgia?

82. SS8H5d Analyze the events that led to the removal of Creeks and Cherokees; include the roles of Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, and the Trail of Tears. Concepts: Individuals ? Groups ? Institutions Rule of Law Movement / Migration

83. INDIAN REMOVAL PAGE 37 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5d ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did Sequoyah and John Ross play in the history of Cherokees in Georgia?

84. What role did Sequoyah and John Ross play in the history of Cherokees in Georgia? SEQUOYAH

85. SEQUOYAH

86. SEQUOYAH

87. SEQUOYAH

88. SEQUOYAH

89. What role did Sequoyah and John Ross play in the history of Cherokees in Georgia? SEQUOYAH Created the Cherokee syllabary (1st Native American written language) Cherokees tried to live more like whites to be accepted His syllabary helped create the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper

90. JOHN ROSS

91. JOHN ROSS

92. JOHN ROSS

93. JOHN ROSS

94. What role did Sequoyah and John Ross play in the history of Cherokees in Georgia? SEQUOYAH Created the Cherokee syllabary (1st Native American written language) Cherokees tried to live more like whites to be accepted His syllabary helped create the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper

95. SS8H5d Analyze the events that led to the removal of Creeks and Cherokees; include the roles of Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, and the Trail of Tears. Concepts: Individuals ? Groups ? Institutions Rule of Law Movement / Migration

96. INDIAN REMOVAL PAGE 38 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5d ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did the Dahlonega gold rush play in the removal of Cherokees in Georgia?

97. What role did the Dahlonega gold rush play in the removal of Cherokees in Georgia? DAHLONEGA GOLD RUSH

100. DAHLONEGA GOLD RUSH There are several popular stories of the beginning of Georgia's gold rush; but in fact, no one is really certain who made the first discovery or when. According to one anecdote, John Witheroods found a three-ounce nugget along Duke's Creek in White County. Another says that Jesse Hogan, a prospector from North Carolina, found gold on Ward's Creek near Dahlonega. Yet another finds a young Benjamin Parks kicking up an unusual-looking stone while on the lookout for deer west of the Chestatee River in 1828. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

102. DAHLONEGA GOLD RUSH The Great Intrusion By late 1829 north Georgia, known at the time as the Cherokee Nation, was flooded by thousands of prospectors lusting for gold. Niles' Register reported in the spring of 1830 that there were four thousand miners working along Yahoola Creek alone. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

104. DAHLONEGA GOLD RUSH While in his nineties, Benjamin Parks recalled the scene in the Atlanta Constitution (July 15, 1894): ?The news got abroad, and such excitement you never saw. It seemed within a few days as if the whole world must have heard of it, for men came from every state I had ever heard of. They came afoot, on horseback and in wagons, acting more like crazy men than anything else. All the way from where Dahlonega now stands to Nuckollsville [Auraria] there were men panning out of the branches and making holes in the hillsides.?

106. DAHLONEGA GOLD RUSH The sudden influx of miners into the Cherokee Nation was known even at the time as the Great Intrusion. One writer said in the Cherokee Phoenix, "Our neighbors who regard no law and pay no respects to the laws of humanity are now reaping a plentiful harvest. . . . We are an abused people." But there was little the Cherokees could do; it seemed the louder they protested, the more eagerly the miners came. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

108. DAHLONEGA GOLD RUSH Gold rush towns sprang up quickly in north Georgia, particularly near the center of the gold region in present-day Lumpkin County. Auraria became an instant boomtown, growing to a population of 1,000 by 1832. The county seat, called Licklog at the time, in 1833 became known as Dahlonega, for the Cherokee word tahlonega, meaning golden. Within a few months after its establishment nearly 1,000 people were crowded into the settlement, with about 5,000 people in the surrounding county. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

110. Branch Mint at Dahlonega Congress soon authorized the establishment of a federal Branch Mint at Dahlonega, and in 1838 the new mint went into operation. It coined more than $100,000 worth of gold in its first year, and by the time it closed in 1861, it had produced almost 1.5 million gold coins with a face value of more than $6 million. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

112. EFFECTS OF THE DAHLONEGA GOLD RUSH Between 1805 and 1832 the state of Georgia held lotteries to distribute land seized from the Cherokees and Creeks. Nearly three quarters of the land in Georgia was allocated by the lottery system. Finally, the U.S. Army drove the Cherokees northwestward to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma during the bitterly cold winter of 1838-39. Deprived of proper food and clothing, at least 4,000?one-fifth of the entire Cherokee population?died on the journey. The forced migration became known as the Trail of Tears. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

113. What role did the Dahlonega gold rush play in the removal of Cherokees in Georgia? DAHLONEGA GOLD RUSH 1828 Gold attracted white settlers to north Georgia Land belonged to Cherokee Nation US Mint built in Dahlonega 1830 Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act 1838 Trail of Tears

114. ANDREW JACKSON

115. SS8H5d Analyze the events that led to the removal of Creeks and Cherokees; include the roles of Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, and the Trail of Tears. Concepts: Individuals ? Groups ? Institutions Rule of Law Movement / Migration

116. INDIAN REMOVAL PAGE 39 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5d ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did Andrew Jackson, John Marshall and the Supreme Court case Worcester v. Georgia play in the removal of Cherokees from Georgia?

117. What role did Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, and the Supreme Court case Worcester v. Georgia play in the removal of Cherokees from Georgia? ANDREW JACKSON

118. JOHN MARSHALL

119. WORCESTER V. GEORGIA U.S. Supreme Court Decision: - www.law.jrank.org Samuel Worcester, tried, convicted, and sentenced by the state of Georgia for illegally living in the lands of the Cherokee Nation encompassed by the state of Georgia, was found by the Supreme Court to have legally lived in Cherokee Nation, by virtue of the facts that the Cherokee Nation is a nation within itself, and that the state of Georgia had no authority to mandate laws within the territory confined by the Cherokee Nation. The acts established by the state of Georgia that affected the lands of the Cherokee Nation were deemed unconstitutional and void.

120. WORCESTER V. GEORGIA United States Supreme Court Decision: Student Translation: Samuel Worcester (a white missionary) was given permission by Cherokees to live in the Cherokee Nation. However, he and others were arrested by the state of Georgia for not having a state license to live on Cherokee land. There were jailed and sentenced to serve four years of hard labor. Their appeal made it to the US Supreme Court, and Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the state of Georgia did not have the right to arrest these people because they were living in a sovereign (free) Cherokee nation. In other words, the laws of Georgia did not apply to the lands of the Cherokee Nation in north Georgia.

121. ANDREW JACKSON The removal of the Native Americans to the west of the Mississippi River had been a major part of Andrew Jackson?s political agenda. After his election he signed the Indian Removal Act into law in 1830. The Act authorized the President to negotiate treaties to buy tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands further west, outside of existing U.S. state borders. He signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835 that would remove all Cherokees from Georgia in exchange for lands in Oklahoma. -wikipedia

122. ANDREW JACKSON While frequently frowned upon in the North, the Removal Act was popular in the South, where population growth, slavery, and the discovery of gold on Cherokee land had increased pressure on tribal lands. The state of Georgia became involved in a dispute with the Cherokees, culminating in the 1832 U.S. Supreme Court decision (Worcester v. Georgia) which ruled that Georgia could not impose its laws upon Cherokee tribal lands. -wikipedia

123. ANDREW JACKSON Jackson is often quoted as having possibly said, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!" WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?

125. INDIAN REMOVAL PAGE 40 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H5d ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did the Trail of Tears play in the removal of Cherokees from Georgia?

126. CHEROKEE TRAIL OF TEARS After the signing of the Treaty of New Echota, the Trail of Tears was the relocation and movement of Native Americans, including many members of the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States. Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while en route to their destinations, and many died, including 4,000 of the 15,000 relocated Cherokee. -wikipedia

133. www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com www.kingcotton.co.uk unitedcats.files.wordpress.com Adherents.com Wikipedia.com Summertownstock.com googleimages www.us-coin-values-advisor.com Georgia in the American Experience textbook


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