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Energy-Efficient Channel Access Protocols. Venkatesh Rajendran [email protected] Introduction. Sensor networks are a special class of multihop wireless networks. Ad-hoc deployment. Self-configuring. Unattended. Battery powered. Sink. Sink. Network Architecture. Thousands of nodes.

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Energy efficient channel access protocols

Energy-Efficient Channel Access Protocols

Venkatesh Rajendran

[email protected]


Introduction

  • Sensor networks are a special class of multihop wireless networks.

Ad-hoc deployment.

Self-configuring.

Unattended.

Battery powered.


Sink

Sink

Network Architecture

  • Thousands of nodes.

  • Short radio range (~10m).

  • Event-driven.

  • Hierarchical deployment.

  • Fault tolerance.

Information Processing


MAC Protocols

  • Regulate channel access in a shared medium.

C

No coordination (ALOHA)

A

X

B

Collision at B


CSMA

Listen before transmitting

Stations sense the channel before transmittingdata packets.

Hidden Terminal Problem

S

R

H

X

Collision at R


CSMA with Collision Avoidance

  • Stations carry out a handshake to determine which one can send a data packet (e.g., MACA, FAMA, IEEE802.11, RIMA).

RTS

S

CTS

R

H

Data

Backoff due to CTS

ACK


Sleep Scheduling

Idle Listening

Idle Listen

Sleep

Rx

Rx

Tx

Tx

Sleep

Idle Listen

Medium Access

  • Energy-efficient channel access is important to prolong the life-time of sensor nodes.

  • Conventional media-access control protocols waste energy by collisions, and idle listening.

  • Radios have special sleep mode for energy conservation.


Achieving energy efficiency

  • When a node is neither transmitting or receiving, switch to low-power sleep mode.

  • Prevent collisions and retransmissions.

  • Need to know Tx, Rx and when transmission event occurs.

Scheduled-based(time-slotted) MAC Protocols



S mac ye etal features
S-MAC [Ye etal] Features

  • Collision Avoidance

    • Similar to 802.11 (RTS/CTS handshake).

  • Overhearing Avoidance

    • All the immediate neighbors of the sender and receiver goes to sleep.

  • Message Passing

    • Long messages are broken down in to smaller packets and sent continuously once the channel is acquired by RTS/CTS handshake.

    • Increases the sleep time, but leads to fairness problems.


S mac overview
S-MAC Overview

  • Time is divided in to cycles of listen and sleep intervals.

  • Schedules are established such that neighboring nodes have synchronous sleep and listen periods.

  • SYNC packets are exchanged periodically to maintain schedule synchronization.



Schedule establishment
Schedule Establishment

  • Node listens for certain amount of time.

  • If it does not hear a schedule, it chooses a time to sleep and broadcast this information immediately.

  • This node is called the ‘Synchornizer’.

  • If a node receives a schedule before establishing its schedule, it just follows the received schedule.

  • If a node receives a different schedule, after it has established its schedule, it listens for both the schedules.



T mac dam etal s mac adaptive listen
T-MAC[Dam etal]: S-MAC Adaptive Listen



T mac s mac summary
T-MAC/S-MAC Summary

  • Simple contention-based channel access with duty cycle-based sleeping.

  • Restricting channel contention to a smaller window  negative effect on energy savings due to collisions.

  • Requires schedule co-ordination with one hop neighbors.



TRAMA: TRaffic-Adaptive Medium Access

  • Establish transmission schedules in a way that:

    • is self adaptive to changes in traffic, node state, or connectivity.

    • prolongs the battery life of each node.

    • is robust to wireless losses.


TRAMA - Overview

  • Single, time-slotted channel access.

  • Transmission scheduling based on two-hop neighborhood information and one-hop traffic information.

  • Random access period

    • Used for signaling: synchronization and updating two-hop neighbor information.

  • Scheduled access period:

    • Used for contention free data exchange between nodes.

    • Supports unicast, multicast and broadcast communication.


Trama features
TRAMA Features

  • Distributed TDMA-based channel access.

  • Collision freedom by distributed election based on Neighborhood-Aware Contention Resolution (NCR).

  • Traffic-adaptive scheduling to increase the channel utilization.

  • Radio-mode control for energy efficiency.



Neighborhood-aware contention resolution (NCR)[Bao et al., Mobicom00]

  • Each node maintains two-hop neighbor information.

  • Based on the time slot ID and node ID, node priorities are calculated using a random hash function.

  • A node with the highest two-hop priority is selected as the transmitter for the particular time slot.


13 Mobicom00]

H

D

9

A

I

2

F

3

C

C

11

Winner

15

B

G

E

8

3

14

NCR - Example

NCR does not elect receivers and hence, no support for radio-mode control.


TRAMA Components Mobicom00]

  • Neighbor Protocol (NP).

    • Gather 2-hop neighborhood information.

  • Schedule Exchange Protocol (SEP).

    • Gather 1-hop traffic information.

  • Adaptive Election Algorithm (AEA).

    • Elect transmitter, receiver and stand-by nodes for each transmission slot.

    • Remove nodes without traffic from election.


Neighbor protocol
Neighbor Protocol Mobicom00]

  • Main Function: Gather two-hop neighborhood information by using signaling packets.

  • Incremental neighbor updates to keep the size of the signaling packet small.

  • Periodically operates during random access period.


Packet formats
Packet Formats Mobicom00]


Schedule exchange protocol sep
Schedule Exchange Protocol (SEP) Mobicom00]

  • Schedule consists of list of intended receivers for future transmission slots.

  • Schedules are established based on the current traffic information at the node.

  • Propagated to the neighbors periodically.

  • SEP maintains consistent schedules for the one-hop neighbors.



Adaptive election algorithm aea
Adaptive Election Algorithm (AEA) Mobicom00]

  • Decides the node state as either Transmit, Receive or Sleep.

  • Uses the schedule information obtained by SEP and a modified NCR to do the election.

  • Nodes without any data to send are removed from the election process, thereby improving the channel utilization.


Simulation Results Mobicom00]

Synthetic broadcast traffic using Poisson arrivals.

50 nodes, 500x500 area.

512 byte data.

Average node density: 6

Delivery Ratio


Energy Savings Mobicom00]

Percentage Sleep Time

Average Length of sleep interval


TRAMA Limitations Mobicom00]

  • Complex election algorithm and data structure.

  • Overhead due to explicit schedule propagation.

  • Higher queueing delay.

Flow-aware, energy-efficient framework.


TRAMA Summary Mobicom00]

  • Significant improvement in delivery ratio in all scenarios when compared to contention-based protocols.

  • Significant energy savings compared to S-MAC (which incurs more switching).

  • Acceptable latency and traffic adaptive.


Flow aware medium access framework
Flow-aware Medium Access Framework Mobicom00]

  • Avoid explicit schedule propagation.

    • Take advantage of application.

  • Simple election algorithm to suit systems with low memory and processing power (e.g., 4KB ROM in Motes).

  • Incorporate time-synchronization, flow discovery and neighbor discovery during random-access period.


Flow information
Flow Information Mobicom00]

  • Flow information characterizes application-specific traffic patterns.

  • Flows can be unicast, multicast or broadcast.

  • Characterized by source, destination, duration and rate.


Example data gathering application
Example: Data Gathering Application Mobicom00]

C

Fc

Fd

D

Fb

B

A

Sink

Fe

E


Flow discovery mechanism
Flow Discovery Mechanism Mobicom00]

  • Combined with neighbor discovery during random-access period.

  • Adapted based on the application.

    • for data gathering application, flow discovery is essentially establishing the data forwarding tree.


Example
Example Mobicom00]

Sink initiates neighbor discovery, flow discovery and time synchronization.

Broadcasts periodic SYNC packets.

Potential children reply with SYNC_REQ.

Source reinforces with another SYNC packet.

Once associated with a parent, nodes start sending periodic SYNC broadcasts.

B

SYNC

A

C

S

SYNC_REQ

Sink


Election process
Election Process Mobicom00]

  • Weighted election to incorporate traffic adaptivity.

  • Nodes are assigned weights based on their incoming and outgoing flows.

  • Highest priority 2-hop node is elected as the transmitter.

  • A node listens if any of its children has the highest 1-hop priority.

    • Can switch to sleep mode if no transmission is started.

B

wc=1

A

C

S

wa=3

wc=1

Sink ws=0


Simulation results 16 nodes 500x500 area cc1000 radio grid topology edge sink
Simulation Results (16 nodes, 500x500 area, CC1000 radio, grid topology, edge sink)

Queueing Delay

Delivery Ratio


FLAMA Summary grid topology, edge sink)

  • Simple algorithm that can be implemented on a sensor platform.

  • Significant performance improvement by application awareness.


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