Energy efficient channel access protocols
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Energy-Efficient Channel Access Protocols. Venkatesh Rajendran [email protected] Introduction. Sensor networks are a special class of multihop wireless networks. Ad-hoc deployment. Self-configuring. Unattended. Battery powered. Sink. Sink. Network Architecture. Thousands of nodes.

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Energy-Efficient Channel Access Protocols

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Energy efficient channel access protocols

Energy-Efficient Channel Access Protocols

Venkatesh Rajendran

[email protected]


Energy efficient channel access protocols

Introduction

  • Sensor networks are a special class of multihop wireless networks.

Ad-hoc deployment.

Self-configuring.

Unattended.

Battery powered.


Energy efficient channel access protocols

Sink

Sink

Network Architecture

  • Thousands of nodes.

  • Short radio range (~10m).

  • Event-driven.

  • Hierarchical deployment.

  • Fault tolerance.

Information Processing


Energy efficient channel access protocols

MAC Protocols

  • Regulate channel access in a shared medium.

C

No coordination (ALOHA)

A

X

B

Collision at B


Energy efficient channel access protocols

CSMA

Listen before transmitting

Stations sense the channel before transmittingdata packets.

Hidden Terminal Problem

S

R

H

X

Collision at R


Energy efficient channel access protocols

CSMA with Collision Avoidance

  • Stations carry out a handshake to determine which one can send a data packet (e.g., MACA, FAMA, IEEE802.11, RIMA).

RTS

S

CTS

R

H

Data

Backoff due to CTS

ACK


Energy efficient channel access protocols

Sleep Scheduling

Idle Listening

Idle Listen

Sleep

Rx

Rx

Tx

Tx

Sleep

Idle Listen

Medium Access

  • Energy-efficient channel access is important to prolong the life-time of sensor nodes.

  • Conventional media-access control protocols waste energy by collisions, and idle listening.

  • Radios have special sleep mode for energy conservation.


Energy efficient channel access protocols

Achieving energy efficiency

  • When a node is neither transmitting or receiving, switch to low-power sleep mode.

  • Prevent collisions and retransmissions.

  • Need to know Tx, Rx and when transmission event occurs.

Scheduled-based(time-slotted) MAC Protocols


Contention based channel access protocols s mac t mac

Contention-based Channel Access Protocols: S-MAC & T-MAC


S mac ye etal features

S-MAC [Ye etal] Features

  • Collision Avoidance

    • Similar to 802.11 (RTS/CTS handshake).

  • Overhearing Avoidance

    • All the immediate neighbors of the sender and receiver goes to sleep.

  • Message Passing

    • Long messages are broken down in to smaller packets and sent continuously once the channel is acquired by RTS/CTS handshake.

    • Increases the sleep time, but leads to fairness problems.


S mac overview

S-MAC Overview

  • Time is divided in to cycles of listen and sleep intervals.

  • Schedules are established such that neighboring nodes have synchronous sleep and listen periods.

  • SYNC packets are exchanged periodically to maintain schedule synchronization.


S mac operation

S-MAC Operation


Schedule establishment

Schedule Establishment

  • Node listens for certain amount of time.

  • If it does not hear a schedule, it chooses a time to sleep and broadcast this information immediately.

  • This node is called the ‘Synchornizer’.

  • If a node receives a schedule before establishing its schedule, it just follows the received schedule.

  • If a node receives a different schedule, after it has established its schedule, it listens for both the schedules.


S mac illustration

S-MAC Illustration


T mac dam etal s mac adaptive listen

T-MAC[Dam etal]: S-MAC Adaptive Listen


T mac early sleeping problem

T-MAC: Early Sleeping Problem


T mac s mac summary

T-MAC/S-MAC Summary

  • Simple contention-based channel access with duty cycle-based sleeping.

  • Restricting channel contention to a smaller window  negative effect on energy savings due to collisions.

  • Requires schedule co-ordination with one hop neighbors.


Scheduling based channel access protocols trama and flama

Scheduling-based Channel Access Protocols: TRAMA and FLAMA


Energy efficient channel access protocols

TRAMA: TRaffic-Adaptive Medium Access

  • Establish transmission schedules in a way that:

    • is self adaptive to changes in traffic, node state, or connectivity.

    • prolongs the battery life of each node.

    • is robust to wireless losses.


Energy efficient channel access protocols

TRAMA - Overview

  • Single, time-slotted channel access.

  • Transmission scheduling based on two-hop neighborhood information and one-hop traffic information.

  • Random access period

    • Used for signaling: synchronization and updating two-hop neighbor information.

  • Scheduled access period:

    • Used for contention free data exchange between nodes.

    • Supports unicast, multicast and broadcast communication.


Trama features

TRAMA Features

  • Distributed TDMA-based channel access.

  • Collision freedom by distributed election based on Neighborhood-Aware Contention Resolution (NCR).

  • Traffic-adaptive scheduling to increase the channel utilization.

  • Radio-mode control for energy efficiency.


Time slot organization

Time slot organization


Energy efficient channel access protocols

Neighborhood-aware contention resolution (NCR)[Bao et al., Mobicom00]

  • Each node maintains two-hop neighbor information.

  • Based on the time slot ID and node ID, node priorities are calculated using a random hash function.

  • A node with the highest two-hop priority is selected as the transmitter for the particular time slot.


Energy efficient channel access protocols

13

H

D

9

A

I

2

F

3

C

C

11

Winner

15

B

G

E

8

3

14

NCR - Example

NCR does not elect receivers and hence, no support for radio-mode control.


Energy efficient channel access protocols

TRAMA Components

  • Neighbor Protocol (NP).

    • Gather 2-hop neighborhood information.

  • Schedule Exchange Protocol (SEP).

    • Gather 1-hop traffic information.

  • Adaptive Election Algorithm (AEA).

    • Elect transmitter, receiver and stand-by nodes for each transmission slot.

    • Remove nodes without traffic from election.


Neighbor protocol

Neighbor Protocol

  • Main Function: Gather two-hop neighborhood information by using signaling packets.

  • Incremental neighbor updates to keep the size of the signaling packet small.

  • Periodically operates during random access period.


Packet formats

Packet Formats


Schedule exchange protocol sep

Schedule Exchange Protocol (SEP)

  • Schedule consists of list of intended receivers for future transmission slots.

  • Schedules are established based on the current traffic information at the node.

  • Propagated to the neighbors periodically.

  • SEP maintains consistent schedules for the one-hop neighbors.


Schedule packet format

Schedule Packet Format


Adaptive election algorithm aea

Adaptive Election Algorithm (AEA)

  • Decides the node state as either Transmit, Receive or Sleep.

  • Uses the schedule information obtained by SEP and a modified NCR to do the election.

  • Nodes without any data to send are removed from the election process, thereby improving the channel utilization.


Energy efficient channel access protocols

Simulation Results

Synthetic broadcast traffic using Poisson arrivals.

50 nodes, 500x500 area.

512 byte data.

Average node density: 6

Delivery Ratio


Energy efficient channel access protocols

Energy Savings

Percentage Sleep Time

Average Length of sleep interval


Energy efficient channel access protocols

TRAMA Limitations

  • Complex election algorithm and data structure.

  • Overhead due to explicit schedule propagation.

  • Higher queueing delay.

Flow-aware, energy-efficient framework.


Energy efficient channel access protocols

TRAMA Summary

  • Significant improvement in delivery ratio in all scenarios when compared to contention-based protocols.

  • Significant energy savings compared to S-MAC (which incurs more switching).

  • Acceptable latency and traffic adaptive.


Flow aware medium access framework

Flow-aware Medium Access Framework

  • Avoid explicit schedule propagation.

    • Take advantage of application.

  • Simple election algorithm to suit systems with low memory and processing power (e.g., 4KB ROM in Motes).

  • Incorporate time-synchronization, flow discovery and neighbor discovery during random-access period.


Flow information

Flow Information

  • Flow information characterizes application-specific traffic patterns.

  • Flows can be unicast, multicast or broadcast.

  • Characterized by source, destination, duration and rate.


Example data gathering application

Example: Data Gathering Application

C

Fc

Fd

D

Fb

B

A

Sink

Fe

E


Flow discovery mechanism

Flow Discovery Mechanism

  • Combined with neighbor discovery during random-access period.

  • Adapted based on the application.

    • for data gathering application, flow discovery is essentially establishing the data forwarding tree.


Example

Example

Sink initiates neighbor discovery, flow discovery and time synchronization.

Broadcasts periodic SYNC packets.

Potential children reply with SYNC_REQ.

Source reinforces with another SYNC packet.

Once associated with a parent, nodes start sending periodic SYNC broadcasts.

B

SYNC

A

C

S

SYNC_REQ

Sink


Election process

Election Process

  • Weighted election to incorporate traffic adaptivity.

  • Nodes are assigned weights based on their incoming and outgoing flows.

  • Highest priority 2-hop node is elected as the transmitter.

  • A node listens if any of its children has the highest 1-hop priority.

    • Can switch to sleep mode if no transmission is started.

B

wc=1

A

C

S

wa=3

wc=1

Sink ws=0


Simulation results 16 nodes 500x500 area cc1000 radio grid topology edge sink

Simulation Results (16 nodes, 500x500 area, CC1000 radio, grid topology, edge sink)

Queueing Delay

Delivery Ratio


Energy efficient channel access protocols

FLAMA Summary

  • Simple algorithm that can be implemented on a sensor platform.

  • Significant performance improvement by application awareness.


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