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AMERICAN REVOLUTION. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. American Revolution 1. Colonists take arms in Mass 1. minutemen –be ready to fight in a minute 2. Gen. Thomas Gage , Br leader., sent troops to take over Mass. Armory (where weapons were stored in Concord)

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American revolution



American revolution

  • American Revolution

    1. Colonists take arms in Mass

    1. minutemen –be ready to fight in a minute

    2. Gen. Thomas Gage, Br leader., sent troops to take

    over Mass. Armory (where weapons were stored in


    a. attempted to arrest Samuel Adams and John


    b. Dr. Samuel Prescott set up warning signal at

    Boston’s Old North Church (one if by

    land, two if by sea)

    1. Paul Revere and William Dawes get signal-

    LAND- go to warn militia

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The Minutemen were men who would be ready to fight the British in a minute.

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Paul Revere was a silversmith and an avowed patriot. He and William Dawes were the two riders who set off from Old North Church to warn the militia that the British were coming.

(though they never said those words!)

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3. Battles at Lexington and Concord 1775

a. Brits defeat militia at Lexington, but turned

back at Concord- Marked start of Revolutionary


2. Second Continental Congress Philadelphia 1775

a. Continental Army –led by George


b. Olive Branch Petition –letter sent to king

stating they were still loyal to him-wanted peace

c. British Army –led by Thomas Gage

1. hired Hessians –professional German


2. assets: Strong army, better navy

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Archibald MacNeal Willard’s

famous painting, “Spirit of 76”was

originally known as “Yankee Doodle”

based on the British soldiers mocking

the American colonist soldiers during the French and Indian War.

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George Washington

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d. Declaration of Independence

1. Thomas Paine –wrote Common Sense

a. called on the colonists to use common sense

and become independent

2. Richard Henry Lee – VA delegate- introduced

a resolution(formal statement of opinion)-calling

for declaration of independence from Eng.

a. Committee formed to create it: Thomas

Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin,

Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston

1. Jefferson chosen to write it

2. signed on July 4, 1776- John Hancock

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Second Continental Congress


Richard Henry Lee

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Thomas Jefferson, Roger Sherman, Ben Franklin, Robert Livingston, and John Adams.

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3. Parts of the Declaration of Independence

a. Preamble –introduction that explains WHY

they want to break from England

b. Natural Rights- lists the rights of the citizens:

life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness,

and that all men are created equal

c. Grievances (formal complaints) -lists the

colonists’ complaints against the British

government-called the King “unfit ruler”

d. Independence- declares colonies “free and

independent states” and they would fight to

defend their nation

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1. Creates a divided nation

a. Loyalists –supported ties with Great Britain

1. Tories –Loyalists who concentrated on

preparing for the fight

b. Patriots –favored separation from Great Britain

4. Key Events of War

a.. Fort Ticonderoga 1775 on Lake Champlain,


1. Ethan Allen, VT. blacksmith led his Green

Mountain Boys

a. Win- get 50 cannons-bring them back to


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Ethan Allen led the Green Mountain Boys at Ft. Ticonderoga.


TROOPS at Ft. Ticonderoga.

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b. Battle of Breed’s (Bunker) Hill 1775 (Boston)

1. Br. Gen. Thomas Gage – set up cannons

high on a hill

2. American Colonel William Prescott –set up on

Breed and Bunker Hills- American retreat-no ammo

a. moral victory since they stood up to the British


d. Battle of Trenton 1776

1. Washington retreats to New Jersey after NY defeat

a. crossed the Delaware River into PA

b. Nathan Hale, American spy- was caught in NY.

1.Sentenced to death, he said the famous words:

“I only regret I have but one life to lose for my


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“I only regret I have but one life to lose for my country.”

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2. Washington, depressed after New York

a. planned to attack British Hessian camp in


b. 12/25/76, Washington surprised the British by

crossing the Delaware at night, and capturing the

sleeping Hessians-brings up morale again

e. Battle of Princeton 1777

1. Gen. Howe orders Gen. Charles Cornwallis to

chase Washington and his troops, but

Washington defeats them at Princeton

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f. Battle of Saratoga 1777

1. Gen. John Burgoyne (British) sent to control

the Hudson River in New York, which would

cutoff New England from other colonies

a. plan failed because the three British

commanders did not communicate with each


1. Howe decides to take over Philadelphia

b. Burgoyne meets up with Americans at Saratoga-

forced to surrender

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g. Winter at Valley Forge 1777

1. Washington’s army forced to winter in Valley Forge

a. bitter cold, poor conditions, lice, bare-feet-

almost ruined Continental Army

b. helped by Americans who brought supplies

h. Help from Europe

1. France- Treaty of Alliance with Fr. King Louis 16th

a. Marquis de Lafayette–young Fr. General fought

for free

b. French became allies (friends) of Patriots

2. Poland

a. Thaddeus Kosciuszko- Polish engineer taught them how to build forts and trenches

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Washington and LaFayette

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b. Casimir Pulaski –trained and organized first

American cavalry (horse soldiers)

3. Prussia

a. Baron Friederich von Steuben –spent winter at

Valley Forge -taught the soldiers how to fight as a


i. War on Western Front 1778-79

a. British and Native Americans attack settlers in

the Ohio Valley

1. George Rogers Clark, leads volunteers on raid

against British using the Miami tribe

a. He is successful, and British troops surrender

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Thaddeus Kosciuszko

Casimir Pulaski

Marquis deLafayette

Baron Friederich

von Steuben

Europeanswho helped the Americans during the war.

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j. War at Sea

1. Continental Navy 1775 had few ships

a. relied on privateers –armed private ships

2. John Paul Jones –captain of The Bonhomme

Richard attacked the British warship, Serapis

a. Jones’ ship hit by cannonball, so British tell him

to surrender

1. replies “ I have not yet begun to fight.”

2. board the Serapis, engage in hand-to-hand

battle, and win.

c. Jones becomes known as “The Father of the

American Navy”


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3. John Barry – Irish Philadelphian naval officer who won many naval engagements for the Americans (Commodore Barry Bridge)

k. War in the South

1. Savannah, Georgia- fell to British in 1777

2. Battle of Charleston 1780 –fell to British

a. Brits led by Lord Charles Cornwallis

a. both losses discouraged Washington

3. Southern Patriot raiders attempt to get back South-

Guerilla warfare-fighters in small bands using hit

and run tactics

a. Nathaniel Greene- considered to be Washington’s

best general- instrumental in battering British

troops in South

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John Barry

George Rogers Clark

John Paul Jones

George Rogers Clark defeat the British in the Ohio Valley

John Barry

Philadelphia’s Naval officer.

John Paul Jones, Father of the American Navy

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John Paul Jones


John Barry

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4.Benedict Arnold

a. caught spying for the British

b. tried to turn over fort at West Point to British

-letter intercepted

c. he joins British Army

l. African Americans in the War

1. Continental Army discharged all African-Am

-slave owners did not want slaves armed

a. British capitalize on this and offers them

freedom to fight for them- over 1,000 join up

b. Continental Army changed policy- allowed them

to fight whether they were free or enslaved

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Crispus Attucks – first person killed in the Revolutionary War

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m. Women in the War

1. Molly Pitcher-fought by her husband’s side,

and brought water pitchers to men

a. received a pension (payment) for military


2. Other women worked the farms, businesses, or

followed husbands to the camps to help out

n. Victory at Yorktown (James River and Chesapeake

Bay VA)-with French help, Americans win

1. British leader: General Cornwallis

2. American leader: George Washington

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Admiral Francois deGrasse

General Jean de Rochambeau

Molly Pitcher

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17th October 1781: The surrender of British forces by Major General Charles O'Hara at Yorktown, Virginia assuring the defeat of the British cause in America. George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette watch as Major General Benjamin Lincoln accepts the surrender.

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3. French Naval leader: Admiral Francois deGrasse

4. French Army leader: General Jean de Rochambeau

a. French Navy blocked port/ armies trapped Br. troops

5. British surrender-Cornwallis refuses to show up

o. Treaty of Paris 1783

a. John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams,

Americans, meet with British

b. Compromise (agreement acceptable to both sides)

c. Terms:

1. England recognizes Americans’ independence

2. Boundaries set for territories in the United States

d. IMPACT of Revolution- catalyst for Fr. Revolution in 1789

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