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Unit 8 - Chapter 20. Age of Exploration and Isolation. Chapter 20 – Section 1. Spanish Conquests in America. I. Columbus Paves the Way II. Spain Builds an American Empire III. Spain Expands Its Influence. I. Columbus’ Voyage Paves the Way. First Encounters

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Unit 8 chapter 20

Unit 8 - Chapter 20

Age of Exploration and Isolation

Chapter 20 section 1

Chapter 20 – Section 1

Spanish Conquests in America

I. Columbus Paves the Way

II. Spain Builds an American Empire

III. Spain Expands Its Influence

I columbus voyage paves the way

I. Columbus’ Voyage Paves the Way

First Encounters

Other Explorers Take to the Sea

A first encounters

A. First Encounters

  • Ships: the Nina, Pintaand Santa Maria

  • October 12, 1492: Lookout on board Pinta gives cry “Tierra! Tierra!”

  • Columbus thought he’d reached the East Indies – called people there los indios

  • Columbus’ goals in exploration

    • To be a “Light bearer” – carry the

      Gospel to the people he encountered

    • Gold, spices

  • Spain’s rulers overjoyed with Columbus’ reports

B other explorers take to the sea

B. Other Explorers Take to the Sea

  • 1500: Pedro ÁlvaresCabral reaches Brazil – claims it for Portugal

  • 1501: AmerigoVespucci – sailed for Portugal along South America – declared it was a “new” world

  • 1507: German mapmaker named new continent “America” in Vespucci’s honor

  • c. 1515: Vasco Núñez de Balboa explored Panama and found the Pacific Ocean

  • 1519: Ferdinand Magellan – Portuguese sailing for Spain – sailed around tip of South America

Ii spain builds an american empire

II. Spain Builds an American Empire

Empire Builders

Cortes Conquers the Aztecs

Pizzaro Subdues the Inca

Spain’s Pattern of Conquest

The Portuguese in Brazil

A empire builders

A. Empire Builders

  • 1519: Hernando Cortés landed in Mexico

    • Went inland claiming new lands for Spain

    • Explorers with him known as conquistadors

    • Looking for gold and silver

B cort s conquers the aztecs

B. Cortés Conquers the Aztecs

  • Encounter with the Aztecs

    • Cortés and 600 men reached Tenochtitlan

    • Met Montezuma II who was convinced Cortés was an armor-clad god

    • Agreed to share the empire’s wealth with him

    • Cortés not satisfied with his share wanted more and forced the Aztecs to give it to him

    • Aztecs rebelled driving Spaniards out

  • 1521: Cortés and his men conquer the Aztecs despite being outnumbered

    • Spaniards had superior weapons

    • Cortés enlisted natives who had a grudge against Montezuma

    • Spanish diseases – mumps, measles, small pox – wiped out the Aztecs

C pizzaro subdues the inca

C. Pizzaro Subdues the Inca

  • 1532: Francisco Pizzaro was a Spaniard who explored South America (what did this violate?)

    • Went up the Amazon and reached the Andes

    • Met Atahualpa – Incan ruler

    • Pizzaro and 200 conquistadors met Atahualpa and 30,000 men

    • Atahualpa’s men were largely unarmed

    • Pizzaro to conquer them and kidnap Atahualpa – he was killed despite ransom

  • The Incans were demoralized by this allowing Pizzaro to quickly capture Cuzco

D spain s pattern of conquest

D. Spain’s Pattern of Conquest

  • Using Old, Successful Techniques

    • Fell back on things used during the reconquista when the Muslims were driven out

    • Spanish settlers, known aspeninsulares, mostly men, married native women

      • Created a largemestizopopulation

      • Marriage was a way to control the population

      • Having Spanish offspring guaranteed submission to Spain’s authority

Age of exploration and isolation

  • The Encomienda System

    • A system of oppression through forced labor

    • Spanish landlords were given rights to the natives’ labor

  • The rulers were placed under encomienda (promise) to treat the natives fairly and respect them

  • This did not often occur and many laborers were worked to death, many in the mines

E the portuguese in brazil

E. The Portuguese in Brazil

  • Outside of Spanish control

  • 1530s: Portuguese settled in Brazil’s coastal region

  • Little gold or silver, so they grew sugar and developed giant plantations

  • Conquered the natives and forced them to work the sugar plantations

Iii spain expands its influence

III. Spain Expands Its Influence

Pushing Into North America

Opposition to the Spanish

Native Resistance

A pushing into north america

A. Pushing into North America

  • Expeditions into the Southwest of North America with many settling there

  • 1513: Juan Ponce de León explored Florida claiming it for Spain

  • 1540: Francisco Vásquez de Coronadoexplored the Southwest- found little gold

    • Due to this, the Crown sent priests to explore and colonize

  • 1609 – 1610: Pedro de Peralta, governor of New Mexico, went up the Rio Grande

    • founded Santa Fe, “Holy Faith”

  • Missions were set up amongst the Pueblo bringing many converts

B opposition to the spanish

B. Opposition to the Spanish

  • Priests opposed the cruel treatment of the natives

    • Criticized encomienda because it was so harsh and cruel

    • A Dominican monk, Bartolomé de Las Casaswrote the Spanish government revealing the brutality of the system

    • 1542: the Spanish government responded to Las Casas and abolished encomienda

      • Las Casas suggested using African slaves instead because they were said to be stronger

      • Later he would see the foolishness of this statement and speak out against slavery

      • Spain would ignore his calls for abolition, however

C native resistance

C. Native Resistance

  • Natives rebelled against the Spaniards in the Caribbean as early as 1493

  • In early 1600, natives in New Mexico rebelled in response to burning of their sacred items and abusing them physically

  • 1680: Popé, a Pueblo chief, revolted using 17,000 warriors driving the Spanish out for 12 years

Section 1 review

Section 1 Review

  • Columbus believed he’d reached _____ when he’d actually found the _____.

  • Brazil was claimed for Portugal by…

  • America was named by a German mapmaker in honor of…

  • Whose exploration was the first to circumnavigate the globe?

  • The first contact made with the Aztecs was by…

  • The group of men with Cortés were called…

  • The leader of the Aztecs was…

  • East Indies/New World

  • Cabral

  • Vespucci

  • Magellan’s

  • Cortés

  • Conquistadors

  • Montezuma II

Section 1 review cont

Section 1 Review (cont.)

  • Who subdued the Inca?

  • What was the ruler Pizzaro conquered?

  • What was the system used by the Spanish to subdue the natives?

  • What crop did they grow in Brazil?

  • Who explored Florida claiming it for Spain?

  • Because little gold was found in New Mexico, what did the emphasis turn to?

  • Which monk spoke out against encomienda?

  • Who replaced the natives as labor in Mexico?

  • Pizzaro

  • Atahualpa

  • encomienda

  • Sugar

  • de Léon

  • Settling and converting natives

  • Las Casas

  • African slaves

Age of exploration and isolation

Chapter 20 – Section 2:

Competing Claims I n North America

I. European Nations Settle North America

II. The Fight for North America

III. Native Reaction

I european nations settle north america

I. European Nations Settle North America

A. Explorers Establish New France

B. A Trading Empire

C. English Settle at Jamestown

D. Puritans Create a “New England”

E. Dutch Start a “New Netherlands”

F. Colonizing the Caribbean

A explorers establish new france

A. Explorers Establish New France

  • French explorers wanted to get to the East Indies by sailing west

  • 1524: Giovanni daVerranzzano (Italian sailing for France) searching for northwest waterway to the Pacific

    • Discovered New York Harbor

  • 1534: Jacques Cartier found the St. Lawrence River followed it down to present-day Montreal (Mont Royal)

  • 1608: Samuel de Champlain said up the St. Lawrence and claimed another region, Quebec

  • Together these would all be known as New France

Age of exploration and isolation

  • 1673: Priest Jacques Marquette and trader Louis Joliet explored Great Lakes and upper Mississippi

  • 1680: Sieur de La Salle explored lower Mississippi claiming the area for King Louis XIV

B a trading empire

B. A Trading Empire

  • 1760’s: French presence had grown to 65,000

    • No real desire to build towns or raise families

    • Catholic priests wanted to make converts

    • Mainly people participated in the fur trade feeding the fashion trends of Europe

C english settle at jamestown

C. English Settle at Jamestown

  • 1607: King James granted a charter to settle in North America

  • Reached Virginia in 4 months and settled on the James River settling Jamestown in honor of King James

    • Colony had a hard start

      • Settlers spent more time looking for gold than planting crops to survive

      • 7 out of 10 died from hunger, disease or fighting with natives

  • Despite the bad conditions, they do figure out a way to live there

    • Found a cash crop, tobacco, which gave the colony its financial base

Age of exploration and isolation

  • A Royal Colony

    • Investors were losing money despite the growing of tobacco

    • Gave up their charter

    • Let the King take over the colony

D puritans create a new england

D. Puritans Create a “New England”

  • 1620: Pilgrims (Separatists) founded a second colony in America

    • Started in Plymouth

    • Settled because they were persecuted for their beliefs and sought religious freedom

  • 1628: Puritans would settle in nearby Massachusetts Bay - seeking religious freedom

    • Sought to build a model community

    • Had difficulties, but mortality rate was nowhere near Virginia’s

    • Unlike Virginia, settled by families instead

      of single men

E dutch start a new netherlands

E. Dutch Start a New Netherlands

  • 1609: Henry Hudson – English – sailed west looking for sea route to Asia

    • Didn’t find that water route

    • Did explore Hudson River, Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait claiming them for the Dutch

    • Established fur trade with the Iroquois

  • Dutch in New Netherlands

    • Built trading posts along Hudson River at Fort Orange (Albany) and Manhattan Island

    • Formed Dutch West India Company

    • 1621: granted permission to colonize the region

Age of exploration and isolation

  • New Netherlands a “Melting Pot”

    • New colony slow to attract Dutch settlers

    • Opened doors to others such as Germans, French, Scandinavians and others

    • Also was religiously tolerant including Protestants, Catholics, Muslims and Jews

F colonizing the caribbean

F. Colonizing the Caribbean

  • 1600s: many European nations seized part of the Caribbean

  • France: Haiti, Guadeloupe and Martinique

  • England: Barbados and Jamaica

  • Netherlands: Dutch Antilles and Aruba

  • Ran huge sugar and tobacco

    plantations – enslaved natives

    and imported African slaves

Ii the fight for north america

II. The Fight for North America

A. The English Oust the Dutch

B. England Battles France

A the english oust the dutch

A. The English Oust the Dutch

  • Didn’t like the Dutch in between their northern and southern holdings

  • 1664: King Charles II gave brother, Duke of York, authority to drive out the Dutch

    • Dutch surrendered without a shot upon his arrival

    • He claimed the colony renaming it New York

  • English continued to colonize the Atlantic coast

  • By 1750, 1.3 million British settlers lived in 13 colonies

B england battles france

B. England Battles France

  • England’s desire for more land caused them to push west

  • 1754: French and Indian War

  • 1763: Britain defeated the French with France surrendering most of its territorial holdings below the Great Lakes

  • Britain had control over most of the eastern part of the present-day United States

Iii native america reaction

III. Native America Reaction

A Strained Relationship

Settlers and Native Americans Battle

Natives Fall to Disease

A a strained relationship

A. A Strained Relationship

  • French and Dutch had good relations with the Native Americans due to trade

    • Both sides were very cooperative with each other and worked together

    • Good relations did not remain

  • British relations, however, were not that good

    • At Jamestown, things started well until the settlers began to cheat the Natives – question over land rights

Age of exploration and isolation

  • In Massachusetts, things started well, but ended badly

    • Separatists/Puritans treated the natives well

    • They were greatly helped by when the natives showed them how to plant and fish in that region

    • At first, they paid the natives for land as they expanded

    • They sought to make converts to Christianity

  • Misunderstandings would greatly strain those relations

B settlers and native americans battle

B. Settlers and Native Americans Battle

  • 1622: Powhatan and his people attacked Jamestown killing 350 settlers

    • The colonists would repay the favor massacring hundreds of the natives around Jamestown

  • 1675: King Philip’s War

    • Native American chieftain, Metcom (aka. King Philip), attacked 52 villages in Massachusetts

    • Settlers attacked back killing many natives

    • Following a year of fierce fighting, the colonists won, however, skirmishes still occurred

C natives fall to disease

C. Natives Fall to Disease

  • Like in Mexico, many natives in North America would fall to disease

  • 1616: an epidemic of small pox raged through the native populations

  • Diseases like small pox would be used against the natives who had no immunities to such diseases

Section 2 review

Section 2 Review

  • Which French explorer was responsible for following the St. Lawrence to Mont Royal?

  • The main attraction for the French is North America was …

  • The first permanent British colony in North America was …

  • The cash crop that would mean survival for the Jamestown colony was…

  • Massachusetts was first settled by the …

  • Jacques Cartier

  • Fur Trade

  • Jamestown

  • Tobacco

  • Pilgrims/ Separatists

Review cont

Review (cont.)

  • The colony settled by the Dutch in North America was known as ____ and later known as ____.

    7. Which Brit was successful in ousting the Dutch?

  • Who did the British have to fight to gain control over North America?

  • What caused relations with the Native Americans to become strained?

  • What was the name of the chief who lead a war in Massachusetts?

  • The number one killer of Native Americans in North America was …

  • New Netherlands/ New York

  • Duke of York

  • The French

  • Land rights

  • Metacom

  • disease

Section 3

Section 3

The Atlantic Slave Trade

The Evolution of African Slavery

A Forced Journey

Slavery in the Americas

I the evolution of african slavery

I. The Evolution of African Slavery

Slavery in Africa

The Desire for Africans

Spain and Portugal Lead the Way

Slavery Spreads Throughout the Americas

African Cooperation and Resistance

A slavery in africa

A. Slavery in Africa

  • Slavery in Africa was a minor institution

    • Spread of Islam increased the slavery and the slave trade (How did Muslims use slaves?)

    • Non-Muslims prisoners of war were sold as slaves

  • In most African societies, slaves had some legal rights and was never based on race.

    • Could advance upward socially

    • Could occupy positions of power as a slave in Africa

    • Could own property

    • Could escape slavery through marriage or adoption

  • Slavery was NOT heredity – couldn’t inherit father’s slaves

B the desire for africans

B. The Desire for Africans

  • The colonization of the Americas brought an interest in African slaves

    • As natives died, the Europeans needed a sure labor source

    • Africa was seen as a place to resupply the labor force

  • Advantages to African slaves

    • Had built up immunities to European disease because of previous contact

    • Had experience farming and could work plantations

    • Less likely to try to escape because home was far away

Age of exploration and isolation

  • Atlantic Slave Trade

    • Buying and selling Africans to work in the Americas

    • Between 1500 & 1600, 300,000 Africans taken to the Americas

    • Between 1600 & 1700, the number was up to 1.5 million

    • By 1870 (end of the slave trade), 9.5 million total imported

C spain and portugal lead the way

C. Spain and Portugal lead the Way

  • 1511: Africans used to work copper mines in Hispaniola

  • 1650: 300,000 on plantations and in gold/silver mines in Central America for Spain

  • 1600s: Portugal would surpass Spain bringing in slaves to work on Brazilian sugar plantations

  • 3.6 million total – nearly 10 times African numbers in North America

D slavery spreads throughout the americas

D. Slavery Spreads Throughout the Americas

  • The more European colonies that were established meant more slaves were imported

    • Sugar, tobacco and coffee plantations in the Caribbean

  • From 1690 to 1807, 1.7 million slaves came to the West Indies

  • 400,000 were imported to the British colonies in North America – the population would reach 2 million

E african cooperation and resistance

E. African Cooperation and Resistance

  • African rulers and merchants cooperated

  • European traders bought slaves that had been sold in the port cities

  • African tribes were encouraged to capture people to sell as slaves

Ii a forced journey

II. A Forced Journey

The Triangular Trade

The Middle Passage

A the triangular trade

A. The Triangular Trade

  • Trans-Atlantic trading network - Triangular Trade

    • One “leg” took European manufactured goods to west Africa – goods traded for African captives

    • Next “leg” went to the West Indies – captives sold for sugar, coffee and tobacco in West Indies

    • Last “leg” would be to take those goods

      to England and sell them and start again

  • Some of the routes included New England

    • Rum and other goods from New England to Africa

    • Trade for slaves in Africa

    • Take slaves to West Indies in exchange for sugar or molasses

B the middle passage

B. The Middle Passage

  • Worst part of the triangular trade routes

  • “Leg” that carried the slaves to the West Indies

  • Horrible and cruel conditions where many died

Iii slavery in the americas

III. Slavery in the Americas

A Harsh Life

Resistance and Rebellion

Consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade

A harsh life

A Harsh Life

  • Upon arrival, slaves were auctioned to highest bidder

  • Slaves would work in the mines, fields or as domestic servants

  • Poor living conditions and cruel treatment

  • Hereditary – passed from one generation to the next – children of slaves passed down as an inheritance

Resistance and rebellion

Resistance and Rebellion

  • Kept cultural life alive through musical traditions and storytelling

  • Resisted bondage with work “slow downs” such as breaking equipment or harming crops

  • Some ran away

  • Some revolted

    • 1522: slaves revolted on Hispaniola – small

    • 1530: slaves destroyed town of Santa Marta

    • 1739: Stono Rebellion occurred in

      South Carolina killing some local

      militia and several colonists

Consequences of the atlantic slave trade

Consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade

  • African culture lost fittest members

  • Families torn apart

  • Firearms traded for slaves spread war and conflict in Africa

  • African slaves contributed to the growth of American colonies

  • Brought their expertise in agriculture making the colonies profitable

  • Slaves brought success to the colonies with their hard work and knowledge

Section 3 review

Section 3 Review

  • 1. Who sold prisoners of war as slaves?

  • 2. In Africa, slavery was NOT _____.

  • 3. Why import African slaves into the Americas?

  • 4. What skills did African slaves bring with them that made them desirable?

  • 5. What was the name given to the trading network that brought the slaves to the Americas?

  • 6. What was the name given to the “leg” of the trade when the slaves would be shipped?

  • 7. What helped to keep African culture alive amongst the slaves?

  • 8. What were the costs to Africa as a result of the slave trade?

  • 1. the Muslims

  • 2. hereditary

  • 3. immune to European diseases

  • 4. farmers

  • 5. Triangular Trade

  • 6. Middle Passage

  • 7. music and storytelling

  • 8. loss of fittest people/ families torn apart

Section 4

Section 4

The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade

The Columbian Exchange

A Commercial Revolution

Changes in European Society

I the columbian exchange

I. The Columbian Exchange

  • The global transfer of foods, plants and animals during the colonization of the Americas

    • Tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco and cacao (chocolate beans!!!!) were new things

    • Corn and potatoes which grew readily in the Americas, but not in Europe

    • These foods provided a healthier diet for the Europeans allowing them to have better health and longer lives

  • From Europe to the colonies:

    • Livestock animals: horses, cattle and pigs

    • Foods from Africa like bananas, black-eyed peas and yams

    • Disease was also transmitted – small pox, measles

Ii a commercial revolution

II. A Commercial Revolution

  • A. The Rise of Capitalism

    • Capitalism: an economic system based on private ownership and investment of wealth for profit

    • Governments not the sole owners of wealth – merchants made investments which led to more investments

    • Business across Europe flourished

    • Increased the money supply which did lead to inflation

  • B. Joint-Stock Companies

    • Worked like a modern day corporation

    • Involved numerous investors with limited liability

    • Investors used a joint-stock company to settle Jamestown

Age of exploration and isolation

  • C. The Growth of Mercantilism

    • A nation’s power lay in its wealth – gave money for armies and navies

    • 2 ways to increase power and wealth

      • Obtain as much gold/silver as possible

      • Favorable balance of trade – where more goods are sold rather than bought

  • D. Main goal was to become self-sufficient

  • E. Lead to colonization where the colonies could produce what was needed for a favorable balance of trade

    • The colony supports the Mother Country

Ii changes in european society

II. Changes in European Society

  • A. Growth in the towns and the rise of the merchant class

  • B. Most of population still remained on farms allowing merchants to rise in society

  • C. Wealth of European societies rose, but majority of people were poor

  • D. Power of rulers rose

Section 4 review

Section 4 Review

1. The global transfer of goods during the colonization of the Americas was called ______.

2. Dramatic changes in the economic atmosphere of Europe were called _______.

3. Foods that went from the Americas to Europe were:

4. Foods that went from Africa to the Americas were:

5. Goods that went from Europe to the Americas were:

6. The economic system based on private ownership and investment is called ______.

1. Columbian Exchange

2. the Commercial Revolution

3. tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, cacao beans, corn and potatoes

4. bananas, black-eyed peas and yams

5. horses, cattle and pigs

6. capitalism

Age of exploration and isolation

7. Investors seeking limited liability for their investments often formed _______.

8. The idea that the colony should benefit the mother country is known as ______.

9. If a country is exporting more than it imports, it is said to have reached a ______.

10. The ______ class enjoyed a rise in social status during the Commercial Revolution.

7. joint-stock company

8. mercantilism

9. favorable balance of trade

10. merchant

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