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Gender Differences in Depression. 2:1 ratio (female to male) for both mild & severe Consistent across cultures, ages Starts at puberty or just after w/ increases in girls’ rates while boys’ stay stable Hormonal changes probably not reason

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gender differences in depression
Gender Differences in Depression
  • 2:1 ratio (female to male) for both mild & severe
  • Consistent across cultures, ages
  • Starts at puberty or just after w/ increases in girls’ rates while boys’ stay stable
  • Hormonal changes probably not reason
  • Physical changes at puberty less valued by girls (fat), esp. white girls
biological theories of depression
Biological Theories of Depression
  • Hormonal
  • Neurotransmitter dysregulation - monoamines, norepinephrine, serotonin
    • Earlier thought high levels of monoamine, low of norepinephrine, serotonin
    • Now thought to be abnormalities in no. & function of receptors
behavioral theories of depression
Behavioral Theories of Depression
  • Stress results in reduced positive reinforcers, esp. in those w/ poor social skills (Lewinsohn)
  • Learned helplessness (Seligman) - lack of control
cognitive theories
Cognitive Theories
  • Negative cognitive triad (self, world, future) maintained by distorted thinking
  • Reformulated learned helplessness model (internal-stable-global)
  • Ruminative response styles cause & prolong D
why the gender difference
Why the Gender Difference?
  • More negative events/less positive reinforcement?
  • Related finding is higher rates of D in poor (poverty, discrimination, unemployment)?
  • Lack of control?
  • Or is it rumination? (vs. distraction)
  • Female role less active, assertive
other prevalence issues in depression
Other Prevalence Issues (in Depression)
  • Cohort effects - in people born before 1915, major D rate is 20%, 40% in those born after ‘55
  • Reason?
  • Changing social values, distintegration of family
  • Or is it expectations? (or some of each)
behavior therapy for depression
Behavior Therapy for Depression
  • Functional analysis - track symptoms, events, interactions, look for precipitators
  • Make changes
    • Alter the environment - pleasant events
    • Teach assertion
    • Use mood-mgmt. skills (e.g., relaxation)
cognitive behavioral therapy for depression
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression
  • Self-monitor mood, thoughts
  • Help challenge negative cognitions
  • Assist in recognizing & changing assumptions
  • Also focus on assertion
interpersonal therapy
Interpersonal Therapy
  • Face losses, stop idealizing lost persons
  • Let go of past relationships, invest in new ones
  • Negotiate interpersonal roles
  • Gains sense of mastery in new roles
  • Address social skill deficits
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