Gender differences in depression l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 9

Gender Differences in Depression PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 117 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Gender Differences in Depression. 2:1 ratio (female to male) for both mild & severe Consistent across cultures, ages Starts at puberty or just after w/ increases in girls’ rates while boys’ stay stable Hormonal changes probably not reason

Download Presentation

Gender Differences in Depression

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Gender differences in depression l.jpg

Gender Differences in Depression

  • 2:1 ratio (female to male) for both mild & severe

  • Consistent across cultures, ages

  • Starts at puberty or just after w/ increases in girls’ rates while boys’ stay stable

  • Hormonal changes probably not reason

  • Physical changes at puberty less valued by girls (fat), esp. white girls


Biological theories of depression l.jpg

Biological Theories of Depression

  • Hormonal

  • Neurotransmitter dysregulation - monoamines, norepinephrine, serotonin

    • Earlier thought high levels of monoamine, low of norepinephrine, serotonin

    • Now thought to be abnormalities in no. & function of receptors


Behavioral theories of depression l.jpg

Behavioral Theories of Depression

  • Stress results in reduced positive reinforcers, esp. in those w/ poor social skills (Lewinsohn)

  • Learned helplessness (Seligman) - lack of control


Cognitive theories l.jpg

Cognitive Theories

  • Negative cognitive triad (self, world, future) maintained by distorted thinking

  • Reformulated learned helplessness model (internal-stable-global)

  • Ruminative response styles cause & prolong D


Why the gender difference l.jpg

Why the Gender Difference?

  • More negative events/less positive reinforcement?

  • Related finding is higher rates of D in poor (poverty, discrimination, unemployment)?

  • Lack of control?

  • Or is it rumination? (vs. distraction)

  • Female role less active, assertive


Other prevalence issues in depression l.jpg

Other Prevalence Issues (in Depression)

  • Cohort effects - in people born before 1915, major D rate is 20%, 40% in those born after ‘55

  • Reason?

  • Changing social values, distintegration of family

  • Or is it expectations? (or some of each)


Behavior therapy for depression l.jpg

Behavior Therapy for Depression

  • Functional analysis - track symptoms, events, interactions, look for precipitators

  • Make changes

    • Alter the environment - pleasant events

    • Teach assertion

    • Use mood-mgmt. skills (e.g., relaxation)


Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression l.jpg

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression

  • Self-monitor mood, thoughts

  • Help challenge negative cognitions

  • Assist in recognizing & changing assumptions

  • Also focus on assertion


Interpersonal therapy l.jpg

Interpersonal Therapy

  • Face losses, stop idealizing lost persons

  • Let go of past relationships, invest in new ones

  • Negotiate interpersonal roles

  • Gains sense of mastery in new roles

  • Address social skill deficits


  • Login