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The XX Files: Increasing the Visibility of Women in Academia & Science Sandra K. Masur, PhD Professor, Department of Ophthalmology Mount Sinai School of Medicine Associate Dean, Faculty Development President, Women Faculty Group Medical College of Wisconsin October 2006.

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The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

The XX Files: Increasing the Visibility

of Women in Academia & Science

Sandra K. Masur, PhD

Professor, Department of Ophthalmology

Mount Sinai School of Medicine

Associate Dean, Faculty Development

President, Women Faculty Group

Medical College of Wisconsin

October 2006


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Making Us Visible

Are there “enough” women scientists?

Why does it feel like an up-hill battle to be a successful woman scientist?

How can scientific organizations and leaders help?

What have we done at WICB?


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Making Us Visible

Are there “enough” women scientists?

Why does it feel like an up-hill battle to be a successful woman scientist?

How can scientific organizations and leaders help?

What have we done at WICB?


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Pipeline data

  • Woman scientists earning PhDs*

  • 45% in Biological Sciences

  • 25% in Physical Sciences

  • Women MDs**

  • 41% residents and fellows

    • 26% of all physicians

*2001-2003 in top 50 departments for their fields as ranked by NSF

(Science 2005 309: 1190-1191)

**AAMC 2005 data


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

But it’s

a very

leaky

pipeline

Science 2005 309: 1190-1191


U s medical school faculty by gender and rank aamc faculty roster may 2005

U.S. Medical School Faculty by Gender and RankAAMC Faculty Roster, May 2005

AAMC Benchmarking report 2005


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • To deal with leaky pipeline:

  • Explicit encouragement (mentoring) for outstanding doctoral candidates to enter the professoriate could help close the gap.

Science 2005 309: 1190-1191; Current Biology 2001 11:42R


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Making Us Visible

Are there “enough” women scientists?

Why does it feel like an up-hill battle to be a successful woman scientist?

How can scientific organizations and leaders help?

What have we done at WICB?


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

The Culture of Science

  • “Science is a form of competitive and aggressive activity, a contest of man against man that provides knowledge as a side product.

  • That side product is its only advantage over football.”*

  • *Richard Lewontin, MIT evolutionary geneticist,

  • in 1980 among papers commenting on

  • James Watson’s book, “The Double Helix”.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • Our Up-Hill Battle

  • We don’t look “right”. We lack “beards”.

  • We don’t speak up in an aggressive way but rather we ask short questions or we don’t speak.

  • We don’t do mathematically based studies.

  • We are too aggressive.

  • We are too feminine.

  • We are not professors in the most prestigious institutions.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • Our Up-Hill Battle

  • We don’t look “right”. We lack “beards”.

  • We don’t speak up in an aggressive way but rather we ask short questions or we don’t speak.

  • We don’t do mathematically based studies.

  • We are too aggressive.

  • We are too feminine.

  • We are not professors in the most prestigious institutions.

  • Gender Schemas work against us


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

GENDER SCHEMAS:

A set of implicit, or nonconscious, hypotheses (held by both men & women) about sex differences that play a central role in shaping women and men’s professional lives.

The most important consequence of gender schemas for professional life is that men are consistently over-rated, while women are under-rated.

  • From “Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Virginia Valian”


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

female

male

Number of Mentions

Skills

& Ability

Research

Career

Application

Teaching

Training

Trix & Psenka (2003) Discourse and Society 14: 191.

Letters of Recommendation for Female

& Male Medical Faculty: Different Emphasis


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

GENDER SCHEMAS: : a set of implicit, or nonconscious, hypotheses (held by both men & women) about sex differences plays a central role in shaping women and men’s professional lives. The most important consequence for professional life is that men are consistently over rated, while women are under rated.

ACCUMULATION OF ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGE

Whatever emphasizes a man’s gender gives him a small advantage, a plus, whereas whatever emphasizes a woman’s gender results in a small loss for her, a minus.

Very small differences add up and result in large disparities in salary, promotion and prestige

  • Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Virginia Valian


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Fighting the Up-Hill battle:

What can you do to counteract Gender Schemas ?

Overcome possible “internal barriers” to effectiveness – achievement is time-consuming and women need more to accumulate advantage.

Become an expert – become highly knowledgeable

and convey that information in a friendly fashion.

Get endorsed by legitimate authority – not only by people,

but by where you publish, study section service.

Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Virginia Valian


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Up-Hill Battle (cont’d)

Find mentors and collaborators.

Negotiate, bargain, seek advancement – you don’t get what you don’t ask for.

Challenge implicit hypotheses (switch the sexes).

Increase the number of women in a Candidate Pool –when 25% of the group are women, they will be more fairly judged. Switches the perception of a job from male – to human - job*.

Increase the number of women in a Evaluator Pool.

*Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Virginia Valian


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Making Us Visible

Are there “enough” women scientists?

Why does it feel like an up-hill battle to be a successful woman scientist?

How can scientific organizations and leaders help?

What have we done at WICB?


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

How do Women Fare in Four Scientific Societies?

ASCB American Society for Cell Biology (1960)

ASN American Society of Nephrology (1967)

ARVO Association for Researchin Vision & Ophthalmology (1928)

ASBMR American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (1977)


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Making Us Visible

Are there “enough” women scientists?

Why does it feel like an up-hill battle to be a successful woman scientist?

How can scientific organizations andleaders help?

What have we done at WICB?


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • The Impact of Committed Leaders – leaders have a disproportionate impact on organizations because of their status as authorities.

  • establish and publicize policies to increase fairness,

    2) legitimize and support the leadership of both women & men.

    • Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Virginia Valian


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

ROLE OF LEADERSHIP

Arthur Rubenstein - Dean, MSSM

(Dean, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and EVP)

John Stobo – Chairman of Medicine at Hopkins

(President, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston)


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Impact of a Leader (1)

Dean Arthur H. Rubenstein

*

*

Conferred at

annual Academic Convocation

1987-1997

1998-2001


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • Impact of a Leader (2)

  • Chairman of Medicine, John Stobo, MD

  • Johns Hopkins Medical School - 1990 (Emma Stokes, consultant)

  • Women faculty earned less than men and advanced more slowly.

  • Appointed a committee to evaluate situation and develop ways to deal with gender-based problems.

  • Stobo’s Committee found

  • Women were coming up for promotion later than men because evaluators failed to identify qualified women.

  • E.g., junior men faculty were asked to chair confs 6X more frequently than junior women faculty.

  • Women didn’t know the criteria for promotion.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • LEADERSHIP (2) concluded

  • Dr. Stobo’s initiatives included:

  • Annual faculty evaluations with explicit info re progress.

  • Monthly meetings with concrete mentoring for moving up in career.

  • Senior faculty were given explicit info on how to mentor.

  • Important meetings moved from outside normal hrs.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • LEADERSHIP (2) concluded

  • Dr. Stobo’s initiatives included:

  • Annual faculty evaluations with explicit info re progress.

  • Monthly meetings with concrete mentoring for moving up in career.

  • Senior faculty were given explicit info on how to mentor.

  • Important meetings moved from outside normal hrs.

  • Impact on the Dept of Medicine

  • 1990 there were 6 women Assoc Profs

  • 1995 there were 26 women Assoc Profs.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

W I S E L I

Women in Science & Engineering Leadership Institute

University of Wisconsin-Madison

wiseli.engr.wisc.edu/Products/top_10_tips.pdf

ADVICE TO THE TOP

Top 10 Tips for Academic Leaders to Accelerate the Advancement of Women in Science and Engineering

LEARN ABOUT OUTSTANDING WOMEN ON YOUR CAMPUS

LEARN FROM THE LOCAL EXPERTS ABOUT GENDER ISSUES

REVIEW CAMPUS DATA ON EQUITY

STUDY WORK/LIFE ISSUES

MAKE GENDER ISSUES VISIBLE


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Making Us Visible

Are there “enough” women scientists?

Why does it feel like an up-hill battle to be a successful woman scientist?

How can scientific organizations and leaders help?

What have we done at WICB?


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WOMEN IN CELL BIOLOGY

(established in 1971)

“The major objective of the Women in Cell Biology Committee (WICB) is to provide opportunities and information useful to women in developing their careers in cell biology. The WICB Committee also provides career development advice of value to all basic biomedical scientists.”

Ursula Goodenough

Washington University

WICB chair (ASCB Pres 1995)

Inke Nathke

Jr WICB Award 2004

University of Dundee

Harvey Lodish

MIT

Zena Werb

UCSF

ASCB President 2005

(former WICB chair)


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB

  • Website

  • Publications: columns and books

  • Speaker Referral Service

  • Annual Meeting Events


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB

  • Website

  • Publications: columns and books

  • Speaker Referral Service

  • Annual Meeting Events


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB

  • Website

  • Publications: columns and books

  • Speaker Referral Service

  • Annual Meeting Events


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Downloadable


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB

  • Website

  • Publications: column and books

  • Speaker Referral Service

  • Annual Meeting Events


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • WICB’s New Speaker Referral Service website:indicates we have an extensive network of individuals familiar with women speakers in all fields of cell biology.

  • The visitor is directed to

  • send an e-mail to [email protected] describing the conference/symposium for which they need a speaker,

  • attaching more information if available,

  • within 24 hours they will receive a response.

  • WICB members will receive the forwarded request from ASCB staff for follow-up.

http://ascb.org/committees/wicb


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

http://www.aai.org/committees/women/aai_wom.html


Wicb annual meeting events

WICB Annual Meeting Events

  • Careers in Cell Biology Lunch

  • Evening Program

  • Saturday Workshop

  • Junior and Senior Awards


Wicb annual meeting events1

WICB Annual Meeting Events

  • Careers in Cell Biology Lunch

  • Evening Program

  • Saturday Workshop

  • Junior and Senior Awards


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

2005 WICB Careers in Cell Biology Lunch Table Topics

http://www.ascb.org/meetings/am2005/lunchtopics05.htm


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB Careers in Cell Biology Lunch Table Topics

http://www.ascb.org/meetings/am2005/lunchtopics05.htm


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB Careers in Cell Biology Lunch Table Topics

http://www.ascb.org/meetings/am2005/lunchtopics05.htm


Wicb annual meeting events2

WICB Annual Meeting Events

  • Careers in Cell Biology Lunch

  • Evening Program

  • Saturday Workshop

  • Junior and Senior Awards


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB Evening Program Topics (1983-2005)


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB Evening Program Topics (1983-2005)


Wicb annual meeting events3

WICB Annual Meeting Events

  • Careers in Cell Biology Lunch

  • Evening Program

  • Saturday Workshop

  • Junior and Senior Awards


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB Saturday Workshops

(Role playing exercises)

2005

From Conflict to Confidence:

Negotiating Day-to-Day Conflicts

Managing Difficult People

and Difficult Situations


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB Saturday Workshop

"From Conflict to Confidence:

Negotiating Day-to-Day Conflicts"

Saturday, December 10, 2005 1:00 pm - 5:00 pm

Conflict is a part of life, not always a pleasant part, but sure proof that thinking, personalities, and passions are at work. In all creative organizations, conflict is part of the work. Disagreements about outcomes and processes are part of the scientific method-add personalities and passion to that and you have quite a mix! Conflicts are painful, eat lots of precious time and energy, and often leave us feeling like we are inept! This workshop is not about taking away conflict: It is about seeing it as one more piece of scientific work, of life, to be managed and about seeing ourselves as developing competencies in an area that likely was not why we entered the field. It is about using the day-to-day negotiation of conflicts to build confidence and competence in ourselves and in our careers as scientists.


Wicb annual meeting events4

WICB Annual Meeting Events

  • Careers in Cell Biology Lunch

  • Evening Program

  • Saturday Workshop

  • Junior and Senior Awards


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB JUNIOR AND SENIOR AWARDS

The WICB Committee recognizes outstanding achievements in cell biology by presenting

two Career Recognition Awards at the ASCB Annual Meeting.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • WICB JUNIOR AWARD

  • a woman in an early stage of her career (generally seven or eight years in an independent position)

  • who has made exceptional scientific contributions to cell biology

  • and exhibits the potential for continuing a high level of scientific endeavor

  • while fostering the career development of young scientists.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • WICB SENIOR AWARD

  • a woman or man in a later career stage (generally full professor or equivalent)

  • whose outstanding scientific achievements are coupled with a long-standing record of support for women in science

  • and by mentorship of both men and women in scientific careers.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • Candidate Packages should include:

  • Junior Award,

  • a letter of nomination,

  • CV of the candidate,

  • no more than three letters of support,

  • at least one must be from outside the nominee's institution

  • Senior Award,

  • a letter of nomination,

  • CV of the candidate,

  • no more than five letters of support,

  • at least one of which must come from outside the nominee's institution,

  • two letters from those who have been mentored by the candidate with specifics


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

WICB Career Recognition Junior and Senior Awardees

SeniorJunior

2005 Elizabeth Blackburn * Rebecca Heald *

2004 Susan Lindquist Inke Nathke

2003 Philip Stahl Claire Walczak

2002 Natasha Raikhel Clare Waterman-Storer *

2001 Joan Brugge Laura Machesky

2000 Shirley Tilghman Linda Hicke

1999 Ursula Goodenough Yixian Zheng

1998 Christine Guthrie Daphne Preuss

1997 Elaine Fuchs Lorraine Pillus

Sarah C. R. Elgin Susan L. Forsburg

1995 Virginia Zakian Trina Schroer

1994 Ann Hubbard Julie Theriot *

==================================

Mary Clutter Mary Beckerle*ASCB

president 2006


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

So two last examples:

ONE:

In 1988, Shirley Tilghman(now Princeton University president) organized a Molecular Genetics Gordon Conference. About 33 % of the speakers and 45 % of the participants were women.

In 1990, the organizing committee for the same conference was all-male. 2% of the speakers were women.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

TWO:

NIH Pioneer Awards

Five-Year, $2.5 Million Grants Support Highly Innovative Research

In 2004, all awards went to white men (10 out of 10). 61 out of the 64 judges were men.

There were eloquent and cogent protests from outstanding members of the scientific community.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

TWO:

NIH Pioneer Awards

Five-Year, $2.5 Million Grants Support Highly Innovative Research

In 2004, all awards went to white men (10 out of 10). 61 out of the 64 judges were men.

There were eloquent and cogent protests from outstanding members of the scientific community.

In response, the new judges are a highly diverse group, the candidates can self-nominate and the guidelines are publicized.

In 2005 Awards went to 6 women and 7 men, including an African American man.

In 2006, 5 women, and 8 men including 2 African American men and 3 Asian men.


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

  • Our organizations and the women and men who are scientific leaders can enhance the advancement of women and minority scientists by

  • mentoring them and

  • openly promoting them.

  • And thus increase diversity in academia and science


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

Acknowledgements:

Colleagues in the WICB committee (see website)

WICB monthly columns and downloadable books

“Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women.” Virginia Valian

“Has Feminism Changed Science?” Londa Schiebinger

“Door in the Dream.” Elga Wasserman

“Ms. Mentor’s Impeccable Advice for Women in Academia.” Emily Toth

“Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide.”

Linda Babcock, Sara Laschever

“Does Gender Matter? Ben A. Barres. Nature (Commentary) Vol 443,

13 July 2006, pp.133-136

Susan Forsburg’s Women in Biology Internet Launch Pages

http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~forsburg/bio.html#index


The xx files increasing the visibility of women in academia science sandra k masur phd

http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~forsburg/bio.html#index

  • Susan Forsburg’s Women in Biology Internet Launch Pages

  • starting point for finding information for biologists who happen to be women.

  • bookmarks to the ample original content already available on the web.

  • links aimed towards women who are graduate students, postdocs, or more senior scientists,

  • sites relevant to undergrads or HS students contemplating a career in biology.


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