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The Kingdom Protista. Chapter 20. What is a Protist?. Any organism that is not a plant, an animal, a fungus, or prokaryote. Are eukaryotes that are not members of the kingdoms, Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi. Classification of Protists.

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The Kingdom Protista

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The Kingdom Protista

Chapter 20

What is a Protist?

  • Any organism that is not a plant, an animal, a fungus, or prokaryote.

  • Are eukaryotes that are not members of the kingdoms, Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi

Classification of Protists

  • Protists are so diverse that many biologists suggest that they should be broken up into several kingdoms.

  • Unfortunately, biologist do not agree on how to classify the protists.




Take in food from the environment

Produce food by photosynthesis

Obtain food by external digestion



Classification of Protists

Section 20-1


are classified by

which include




Animallike Protists: Protozoans

  • 4 phyla of the animallike protists -Distinguished from one another by their means of movement

    • Zooflagellates-move by flagella ex. Trychonympha(termite), Trypanosoma(Tse Tse Fly)

    • Sarcodines-move by pseudopods ex. amoeba

    • Ciliates-move by cilia ex. paramecium

    • Sporozoans-no movement, parasites ex. plasmodium


  • Animallike protists that swim using a flagella

  • Most have 1-2 flagella

  • Live in lakes & streams, where they absorb nutrients from decaying matter

  • Some live within bodies of other organisms, taking advantage of the food from larger organisms

  • Can reproduce by asexual and sexual reproduction


  • Move via temporary cytoplasmic projections known as pseudopods

  • Amoebas

  • Surround food and form a food vacuole

Contractile vacuole



Food vacuole



  • Contain short hairlike projections called cilia

  • Use cilia for feeding & movement

  • Found in both fresh & salt water


Oral groove



Anal pore

Contractile vacuole



Food vacuoles




  • Do not move on their own & are parasitic

Animallike Protists & Disease

  • Malaria

  • African sleeping sickness

  • Amebic dysentery


  • One of the world’s most serious infectious disease

  • 2 million people still die from malaria every year

  • Carried by the female Anopheles mosquito

Cycle of Malaria (pg. 503)

Symptoms & Treatment of Malaria

  • Severe chills

  • Fever

  • There are a number of vaccines against malaria but to date most are only partially effective

  • Controlling mosquitoes is the best method to controlling malaria

African Sleeping Sickness

  • Zooflagellates of the genus Trypanosoma

  • Spread by the bite of an insect known as the tsetse fly


  • Begin to show 1 to 4 weeks after bite

  • Chills

  • Rashes

  • Infect nerve cells: severe damage causes some individuals to lose consciousness, lapsing into a deep and sometimes fatal sleep


  • Hospitalization

  • Medications

  • Follow-ups for 2 years

Amebic Dysentery

  • Common in areas with poor sanitation

  • Severe diarrhea

  • Caused by an organism that looks like the harmless amoebas

  • Entamoeba, a parasite spread by contaminated drinking water

  • Attacks the wall of the intestine, causing extensive bleeding

Amebic Dysentery

  • Can also occur in the crystal-clear mountain streams

  • Caused by another flagellated pathogen, Giardia

  • Giardia produces tough, microscopic-size cysts that can be killed only be boiling water thoroughly or by adding iodine to the water

  • Causes severe diarrhea and digestive system problems.

Ecology of Animallike Protists

  • Essential roles in the living world

    • Live symbiotically with other organisms

    • Recycle nutrients by breaking down dead organic matter

    • Live in seas and lakes & are a part of the food chain


  • Zooflagellate that lives within the digestive systems of termites

  • Makes it possible for termites to eat wood

  • Termites do not have an enzyme to breakdown wood

  • The Trichonympha does it for them


  • Guided Reading Worksheets

    • 20-1

    • 20-2

  • Due Wednesday, February 16th

Plant-Like Protists

  • Commonly called Algae

  • Contain chlorophyll and carries out photosynthesis

Unicellular Algae-classified by pigments

  • Phylum Euglenophyta

    • 2 flagella but no cell wall

  • Phylum Chrysophyta

    • Gold-colored chloroplast

  • Phylum Bacillariophyta

    • Called diatoms

    • Cell walls contain silicon

  • Phylum Pyrrophyta

    • Called dinoflagellates

Draw a Euglena

  • see p. 507, Figure 20-10)

Ecology of Unicellular Algae

  • Make up most of phytoplankton

    • Small photosynthetic organisms near surface of ocean

    • ½ of all photosynthesis on Earth is performed by the algae

    • Source of nourishment for small fish

Algal Blooms and “Red Tides

  • Help recycle sewage and fertilizer

  • Grow too much, deplete nutrients, die, rid water of oxygen, choke out fish life

  • Can produce toxins, eaten by clams and shellfish, eaten by humans and cause death

Multicellular Algae (mostly)

  • Phylum Rhodophyta

    • Red Algae

  • Phylum Phaeophyta

    • Brown Algae

  • Phylum Chlorophyta

    • Green Algae

Draw Brown Algae

  • see p. 511, Figure 20-15


  • Alternation of Generations

    • Life cycle includes both haploid and diploid generation

    • Enables them to survive unfavorable conditions

Analyzing Data

  • Pg. 508

  • Questions 1-4

Fungus-Like Protists

  • Like fungi-absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organic matter

  • Different from fungi-have centrioles and lack chitin cell walls

Funguslike Phyla

  • Phylum Acrasiomycota

    • Slime mold

  • Phylum Myxomycota

    • Acellular slime mold

  • Phylum Oomycota

    • Water mold (white mold on dead fish)

The Great Potato Famine

  • Phytophthora infestans (Phylum Oomycete) destroyed 60% of the potatoes in Ireland in 1845

  • Between 1845 and 1851 at least one million Irish people died of starvation or disease

  • One million Irish emigrated to the U.S. and other countries


  • Guided Reading Worksheets

    • 20-3

    • 20-4

    • 20-5

    • Preparing for TAKS pg. 525 1-4

  • Due Friday, February 18th

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