The kingdom protista
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The Kingdom Protista. Chapter 20. What is a Protist?. Any organism that is not a plant, an animal, a fungus, or prokaryote. Are eukaryotes that are not members of the kingdoms, Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi. Classification of Protists.

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The kingdom protista

The Kingdom Protista

Chapter 20


What is a protist

What is a Protist?

  • Any organism that is not a plant, an animal, a fungus, or prokaryote.

  • Are eukaryotes that are not members of the kingdoms, Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi


Classification of protists

Classification of Protists

  • Protists are so diverse that many biologists suggest that they should be broken up into several kingdoms.

  • Unfortunately, biologist do not agree on how to classify the protists.


Classification of protists1

Animallike

Plantlike

Funguslike

Take in food from the environment

Produce food by photosynthesis

Obtain food by external digestion

Decomposers

Parasites

Classification of Protists

Section 20-1

Protists

are classified by

which include

which

which

which


Animallike protists protozoans

Animallike Protists: Protozoans

  • 4 phyla of the animallike protists -Distinguished from one another by their means of movement

    • Zooflagellates-move by flagella ex. Trychonympha(termite), Trypanosoma(Tse Tse Fly)

    • Sarcodines-move by pseudopods ex. amoeba

    • Ciliates-move by cilia ex. paramecium

    • Sporozoans-no movement, parasites ex. plasmodium


Zooflagellates

Zooflagellates

  • Animallike protists that swim using a flagella

  • Most have 1-2 flagella

  • Live in lakes & streams, where they absorb nutrients from decaying matter

  • Some live within bodies of other organisms, taking advantage of the food from larger organisms

  • Can reproduce by asexual and sexual reproduction


Sarcodines

Sarcodines

  • Move via temporary cytoplasmic projections known as pseudopods

  • Amoebas

  • Surround food and form a food vacuole


Amoeba

Contractile vacuole

Pseudopods

Nucleus

Food vacuole

Amoeba


Ciliates

Ciliates

  • Contain short hairlike projections called cilia

  • Use cilia for feeding & movement

  • Found in both fresh & salt water


Ciliates1

Trichocysts

Oral groove

Lysosomes

Gullet

Anal pore

Contractile vacuole

Micronucleus

Macronucleus

Food vacuoles

Cilia

Ciliates


Sporozoans

Sporozoans

  • Do not move on their own & are parasitic


Animallike protists disease

Animallike Protists & Disease

  • Malaria

  • African sleeping sickness

  • Amebic dysentery


Malaria

Malaria

  • One of the world’s most serious infectious disease

  • 2 million people still die from malaria every year

  • Carried by the female Anopheles mosquito


Cycle of malaria pg 503

Cycle of Malaria (pg. 503)


Symptoms treatment of malaria

Symptoms & Treatment of Malaria

  • Severe chills

  • Fever

  • There are a number of vaccines against malaria but to date most are only partially effective

  • Controlling mosquitoes is the best method to controlling malaria


African sleeping sickness

African Sleeping Sickness

  • Zooflagellates of the genus Trypanosoma

  • Spread by the bite of an insect known as the tsetse fly


Symptoms

Symptoms

  • Begin to show 1 to 4 weeks after bite

  • Chills

  • Rashes

  • Infect nerve cells: severe damage causes some individuals to lose consciousness, lapsing into a deep and sometimes fatal sleep


Treatment

Treatment

  • Hospitalization

  • Medications

  • Follow-ups for 2 years


Amebic dysentery

Amebic Dysentery

  • Common in areas with poor sanitation

  • Severe diarrhea

  • Caused by an organism that looks like the harmless amoebas

  • Entamoeba, a parasite spread by contaminated drinking water

  • Attacks the wall of the intestine, causing extensive bleeding


Amebic dysentery1

Amebic Dysentery

  • Can also occur in the crystal-clear mountain streams

  • Caused by another flagellated pathogen, Giardia

  • Giardia produces tough, microscopic-size cysts that can be killed only be boiling water thoroughly or by adding iodine to the water

  • Causes severe diarrhea and digestive system problems.


Ecology of animallike protists

Ecology of Animallike Protists

  • Essential roles in the living world

    • Live symbiotically with other organisms

    • Recycle nutrients by breaking down dead organic matter

    • Live in seas and lakes & are a part of the food chain


Trichonympha

Trichonympha

  • Zooflagellate that lives within the digestive systems of termites

  • Makes it possible for termites to eat wood

  • Termites do not have an enzyme to breakdown wood

  • The Trichonympha does it for them


Homework

Homework

  • Guided Reading Worksheets

    • 20-1

    • 20-2

  • Due Wednesday, February 16th


Plant like protists

Plant-Like Protists

  • Commonly called Algae

  • Contain chlorophyll and carries out photosynthesis


The kingdom protista

Unicellular Algae-classified by pigments

  • Phylum Euglenophyta

    • 2 flagella but no cell wall

  • Phylum Chrysophyta

    • Gold-colored chloroplast

  • Phylum Bacillariophyta

    • Called diatoms

    • Cell walls contain silicon

  • Phylum Pyrrophyta

    • Called dinoflagellates


Draw a euglena

Draw a Euglena

  • see p. 507, Figure 20-10)


Ecology of unicellular algae

Ecology of Unicellular Algae

  • Make up most of phytoplankton

    • Small photosynthetic organisms near surface of ocean

    • ½ of all photosynthesis on Earth is performed by the algae

    • Source of nourishment for small fish


Algal blooms and red tides

Algal Blooms and “Red Tides

  • Help recycle sewage and fertilizer

  • Grow too much, deplete nutrients, die, rid water of oxygen, choke out fish life

  • Can produce toxins, eaten by clams and shellfish, eaten by humans and cause death


Multicellular algae mostly

Multicellular Algae (mostly)

  • Phylum Rhodophyta

    • Red Algae

  • Phylum Phaeophyta

    • Brown Algae

  • Phylum Chlorophyta

    • Green Algae


Draw brown algae

Draw Brown Algae

  • see p. 511, Figure 20-15


Reproduction

Reproduction

  • Alternation of Generations

    • Life cycle includes both haploid and diploid generation

    • Enables them to survive unfavorable conditions


Analyzing data

Analyzing Data

  • Pg. 508

  • Questions 1-4


Fungus like protists

Fungus-Like Protists

  • Like fungi-absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organic matter

  • Different from fungi-have centrioles and lack chitin cell walls


Funguslike phyla

Funguslike Phyla

  • Phylum Acrasiomycota

    • Slime mold

  • Phylum Myxomycota

    • Acellular slime mold

  • Phylum Oomycota

    • Water mold (white mold on dead fish)


The great potato famine

The Great Potato Famine

  • Phytophthora infestans (Phylum Oomycete) destroyed 60% of the potatoes in Ireland in 1845

  • Between 1845 and 1851 at least one million Irish people died of starvation or disease

  • One million Irish emigrated to the U.S. and other countries


Homework1

Homework

  • Guided Reading Worksheets

    • 20-3

    • 20-4

    • 20-5

    • Preparing for TAKS pg. 525 1-4

  • Due Friday, February 18th


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