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PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction. Allows for amplification of a DNA sequence by repeated cycles of replication. very similar to DeptNA replication in cell, except: DNA strands separated by heat synthetic DNA primers used instead of RNA primers Taq Polymerase instead of DNAP I & III

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pcr polymerase chain reaction

PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction

Allows for amplification of a DNA sequence by repeated cycles of replication

slide2
very similar to DeptNA replication in cell, except:
  • DNA strands separated by heat
  • synthetic DNA primers used instead of RNA primers
  • Taq Polymerase instead of DNAP I & III
  • 2 parent strands synthesised continuously
slide3
PCR allows a single sequence of DNA to be amplified to millions of copies in a short period of time
  • used in forensic criminal investigations, medical diagnostics & genetic research
  • Cutting, Pasting, & Copying DNA & the Recombinant DNA Controversy
rflp restriction fragment length polymorphism

RFLP - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

using restriction enzymes to digest DNA fragments and compare differences between individuals

polymorphism
Polymorphism
  • difference in DNA sequence between individuals of same species
  • fragments of DNA have microsatellites or VNTR’s (variable number tandem repeats), short sequences (2-6 bp) that repeat over and over
slide6
length and number of VNTR’s are different in every person except identical twins
  • known as ‘DNA fingerprinting’
  • restriction enzymes will give different length DNA fragment for each person
southern blotting
Southern Blotting
  • transfers DNA from gel onto nylon membrane while keeping DNA fragments in place
  • probe the membrane with radioactive labelled complimentary sequence
  • probe will attach to DNA at certain locations (hybridization)
slide8
when exposed to x-ray film, places where probe attached to DNA shows dark bands (audiogram)
  • pattern on audiogram can be used to compare suspect’s DNA to DNA found at crime scene
  • Use of DNA Analysis in Identification, Health, & Human Origins
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