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The Magna Carta. … presented their demands to him in written form as the Magna Carta (Great Charter). Served as the major source of traditional English respect for individual rights & liberties… served as a contract between the king & nobles of England

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the magna carta
The Magna Carta

…presented their demands to him in written form as the Magna Carta (Great Charter).

  • Served as the major source of traditional English respect for individual rights & liberties…
  • served as a contract between the king & nobles of England
  • It implied the idea that monarchs had to govern according to common law not divine law
england from 1603 1688
England from 1603-1688
  • James I 1603-1625
  • Charles I 1625-1649
  • Civil War 1642-1649
  • Oliver Cromwell 1649-1658
  • Richard Cromwell 1658-1660
  • Charles II 1660-1685
  • James II 1685- 1688
  • William & Mary 1689
england
England
  • Ultimate victory of Constitutionalism over Absolutism
james i 1603 1625
James I 1603-1625
  • Also James VI of Scotland
  • Great Grandson of Henry VII
  • Divine Right of Kings
  • “King is from God and the Law is from the King”
  • England is the most prominent example of resistance to Absolute Monarchy and the development of Constitutional Monarchy
james problems
James’ Problems
  • Clashed with Puritans who wished to “purify” the Anglican Church
  • Parliament resented James’ Divine Right philosophy
  • Puritans were a powerful group in the Parliament
  • Parliament controlled legitimate means to raise taxes
  • Trew Law of Free Monarchy
charles i 1600 1649
Charles I (1600-1649)

Charles I becomes king after James dies in 1625.

Also believed in divine right monarchy and just as conservative on religious issues.

Charles I was forced by Parliament to accept the Petition of Right passed by Parliament in 1628

The Petition of Right stated that the King could not:

impose cruel and unusual punishments on prisoners

impose military rule during peacetime

require homeowners to shelter troops without consent

obtain taxes, gifts, or loans without the consent of Parliament.

6

charles i son of james i
Charles I, son of James I
  • Believed in Divine Right
  • Still squabbled with Parliament and Puritans
  • Had financial problems
    • Demanded forced loans from his subjects
    • Quartered troops in private homes at owners expense

Ship Money Tax 1634

petition cont
Petition cont.
  • Charles actually ruled without calling another parliament from 1629-1640
ci s religious policies were unpopular
CI’s religious policies were unpopular
  • Forced Puritans to conform to the Church of England
  • Charles I relaxed restrictions against Roman Catholics
  • 1637 Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, tried to force Anglicanism on Scotland
  • Charles had to summon Parliament in 1640 to raise money for war preparation against the Scots.
short parliament 1640 1640
Short Parliament 1640-1640
  • Led by John Pym, Parliament refused even to consider funds for war until the King agreed to address Parliament’s grievances.
  • The King in response immediately dissolved the Parliament
  • When the Scottish army defeated the English at the battle of Newburn, Charles reconvened Parliament.
long parliament
Long Parliament
  • Laud tried and later executed
  • No new taxes without consent of Parliament
  • Parliament called at least every three years (triennial act)
  • December 1641 Parliament presents Charles I with the Grand Remonstrance- a list of grievances against the crown
civil war
Civil War
  • Puritans vs. Roundheads
  • In January 1642, the King invaded Parliament with his soldiers
  • Pym and the other leaders had been warned and they escaped
parliament vs the king
Parliament vs. the King
  • Two factors led to Parliaments victory over the King:
    • Parliaments alliance with Scotland, John Pym persuaded Parliament to accept the terms of the Solemn League and Covenant. This agreement committed Parliament to a Presbyterian system of Church government.
    • The reorganization of the Parliamentary army under Oliver Cromwell-Independent
victory over the king
Victory over the King
  • Cromwell’s New Model Army won a decisive victory over the King at the battle of Naesby 1645.
2 nd civil war
2nd Civil War
  • In December 1648, Colonel Thomas Pride of the New Model Army barred the Presbyterians from the Parliament.
  • After Pride’s Purge only a rump of 50 Independents remained in Parliament
  • After a trial by a special court, the Rump Parliament executed Charles-and abolished the Monarchy, the House of Lords and the Anglican Church
interregnum
Interregnum

1649 Charles and his Cavaliers are defeated by Puritan forces led by Oliver Cromwell

Beginning of period known as the Interregnum.

Charles is beheaded, monarchy is abolished, House of Lords is abolished and England is proclaimed to be a republic ruled by Parliament.

16

republic 1649 1653
Republic 1649-1653
  • Cromwell ruled a Puritan Republic
  • During this time Cromwell’s army conquered Ireland and Scotland
  • During this time OC also passed the first Navigation Acts
protectorate 1653 1660
Protectorate 1653-1660
  • In 1653 the HOC considered disbanding Cromwell’s expensive army, Cromwell responded by marching in and disbanding Parliament. He ruled thereafter as Lord Protector.
  • Cromwell was as intolerant of Anglicans as Charles had been of Puritans. The English people resented his puritanical laws.
  • By 1658 the English were ready to end their Puritan/republican experiment and bring back the monarchy
cromwell and the republic
Cromwell and the Republic

Cromwell soon finds Parliament inconvenient, dispersed it, and created a military dictatorship

He instituted puritan social policies in England

censored the press, closed the theaters and outlawed sports. Dancing and drinking were considered socially unacceptable.

When Cromwell dies in 1658, a majority in England are ready to end the Puritan experiment

Charles II, son of the slain Charles I, is invited in 1660 to take the throne and return England to monarchy.

19

restoration
Restoration

The restoration of Charles II did not immediately solve problems that had caused the civil war.

Still had to work out state attitude toward religion and role of Monarch.

MAP

Monarchy, Anglican Church, Parliament

20

declaration of breda 1660
Declaration of Breda 1660
  • Declaration from Charles II of England in which he promised a general pardon for crimes committed during the English Civil War and the Interregnum for all those who recognized Charles II as the rightful King.
  • Also promised religious toleration
  • The Declaration was written in response to a secret message sent by George Monck who was effectively in control of England in 1660.
  • The Parliament passed a resolution that “gov’t ought to be by King, Lords and Commons”
clarendon code
Clarendon Code
  • The name given to a series of laws passed by the restored Parliament that persecuted dissenters.
  • Anglicans dominated the restored Cavalier Parliament.
  • Out of a fear of social revolution, The Anglicans passed four acts that created the two worlds Anglicansim and non-conformity.
clarendon code1
Clarendon Code
  • Corporation Act 1661- limited municipal office to Anglican Royalists
  • The Act of Uniformity 1662- reinforced the prayerbook of Elizabeth I.
  • The Conventicle Act 1664 penalized anyone who attended a dissenters congregation.
  • The Five mile Act 1665 attempted to force dissenters out of towns where they ministered. The act forbade them to teach.
treaty of dover 1670
Treaty of Dover 1670
  • In 165 England became involved in a war with the Dutch. The war did not go well, and in 1667 the Dutch fleet defeated the English Navy. Charles II feared the weakened England was now likely to be invaded by the French.
  • Charles II, afraid of a French invasion, sent his sister Henrietta to talk to Louis XIV.
treaty of dover
Treaty of Dover
  • Henrietta told Louis XIV that Charles II wanted England and France to become allies.
  • Louis XIV indicated that he was willing to help Charles II but he demanded that Charles become a Catholic.
treaty of dover1
Treaty of Dover
  • In 1670 Charles II and Louis XIV signed the treaty of Dover.
  • In the treaty, Louis XIV agreed to pay Charles II an annual pension.
  • Charles would get more money when he announced to the English people he had become Catholic.
  • Louis also promised 6,000 troops to protect Charles II if the English rose against him.
treaty of dover2
Treaty of Dover
  • Charles II agreed to help the French in there war with the Dutch. (L XIV’s War against the Dutch 1672-1678 ended by the treaty of Nimwegen).
declaration of indulgence 1672
Declaration of Indulgence 1672
  • Charles II’s attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant non-conformists and Roman Catholics
test act 1673
Test Act 1673
  • A series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and non-conformists
  • I do declare that I do believe there is not any transubstantiation in the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, or in the elements of the bread and wine, at or after the consecration thereof by any person whatever.
popish plot
Popish Plot
  • The Popish Plot was a fictitious conspiracy concocted by Titus Oates that gripped England, Wales and Scotland in Anti-Catholic hysteria between 1678 and 1681.[1] Oates alleged that there existed an extensive Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II, accusations that led to the execution of at least 15 men and precipitated the Exclusion Bill Crisis. Eventually Oates\' intricate web of accusations fell apart, leading to his arrest and conviction for perjury.
exclusion crisis
Exclusion Crisis
  • The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1678 through 1681 in the reign of Charles II of England. The Exclusion Bill sought to exclude the king\'s brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, from the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland because he was Roman Catholic. The Tories were opposed to this exclusion while the "Country Party", who were soon to become known as the Whigs, supported it.
james ii
James II

1685 Charles II dies without an heir and the crown passes to brother, James II,

He is Catholic. Parliament is strongly Protestant.

James II passes Declaration of Indulgence 1687

Suspended all laws excluding Catholics and Puritans from office.

Parliament does nothing.

Why does James’ second marriage and birth of a son change things?

32

glorious revolution
Glorious Revolution

James II Protestant Daughter Mary is married to William of Orange (Dutch).

1688 Group of prominent English noblemen invited them to invade England and take the throne.

James flees and England has another revolution with almost no bloodshed.

“Glorious Revolution”

33

bill of rights
Bill of Rights

1689 Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary as joint Monarchs on the condition that they accept the Bill of Rights.

Terms of Bill of Rights

affirmed Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxes

standing armies could be raised only with the consent of parliament

citizens have right to petition government, keep arms, have a jury trial and not be subject to excessive bail.

34

act of settlement 1701
Act of Settlement 1701
  • The Act of Settlement provided that the throne would pass to the Electress Sophia of Hanover – a granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England, niece of Charles I of Scotland and England – and her Protestant descendants who had not married a Roman Catholic; those who were Roman Catholic, and those who married a Roman Catholic, were barred from ascending the throne "for ever". Eight further provisions of the act would only come into effect upon the death of both William and Anne:
  • The monarch "shall join in communion with the Church of England." This was another provision to avoid a Roman Catholic monarch. Along with James II\'s perceived despotism, his religion was the main cause of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the previous linked religious and succession problems solved by the joint monarchy of William and Mary.
act of union 1707
Act of Union 1707
  • The Acts of Union were two Parliamentary Acts - the Union with Scotland Act passed in 1706 by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland - which put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the parliaments of the two countries. The Acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland (previously separate states, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch) into a single, united kingdom named "Great Britain".
some basic questions of political philosophy
Some basic questions of political philosophy
  • What is the origin of government?
  • What is the purpose of government?
  • What legitimates the power and authority of government?
  • What is the best form of government?
overview background the experience of england in the 17 th century
Overview & Background: the Experience of England in the 17th Century
  • English political tradition
    • The Magna Carta (1215)
    • Parliament
    • Common Law
  • The English Civil War (1642-49)
    • Charles I vs. Parliament
    • Influence on Thomas Hobbes
    • Leviathan (1651)
  • The Glorious Revolution (1688)
    • James II vs. Parliament
    • Influence on John Locke
    • Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
thomas hobbes leviathan 1651
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)
  • Wanted to construct a “science of politics” based on an indisputable principle
  • This principle must be based on the strongest element in human nature
  • The strongest element was passion, not reason
  • The strongest passion is fear of violent death
  • This fear gives rise to the natural right of self-preservation
  • The natural right of self-preservation is the basis of Hobbes’ thought

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

thomas hobbes leviathan 16511
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)
  • In a state of nature there is a war of every man against every man
  • “No arts, no letters, and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
  • To secure peace men make contracts establishing a sovereign power who is not subject to civil law since by its will it creates the law
  • Of the three forms of sovereignty (monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy), monarchy is the most effective in securing peace

Leviathan (1651)

thomas hobbes 1588 1679
Thomas Hobbes (1588 –1679)
  • English philosopher
  • Wrote Leviathan – life began in a state of nature
  • Man is inherently selfish and aggressive
  • Left on own, chaos and conflict would rule
  • Citizens need law and to follow a sovereign to avoid chaos
john locke second treatise of civil government 1690
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
  • The state of nature is not a state of perpetual war;
  • All men are free and equal; no man by nature is sovereign over another man
  • The law of nature, revealed by reason, governs the state of nature
  • Natural rights include the right to Life, Liberty, and Estate (property)

John Locke (1632-1704)

john locke 1632 1704
John Locke (1632 – 1704)
  • English philosopher
  • Believed that over time people would join together to benefit from cooperation
  • Through a Social Contract, sovereignty would remain with the people
john locke second treatise of civil government 16901
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
  • No one ought to harm another in his life, liberty, or property; if anyone does harm another, the one he harms has the right to punish him
  • Through a social contract, people create a government to protect their natural rights of life, liberty, and property
  • The best form of government to protect natural rights is a government of limited powers (constitutionalism)
  • If a government breaks the social contract, the people have the right to dissolve it

Two Treatises of Civil Government (1690)

new government in england
New Government in England
  • Constitutional monarchy-
    • where laws limited the ruler’s power
    • King ruling with Parliament
  • In 1689 Parliament drafted the Bill of Rights
    • No suspending of Parliament’s laws
    • No levying of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament
    • No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament
    • No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
challenges in 17 th century
Challenges in 17th Century

17th Century an age of many conflicts and crises

Many causes:

religious and state-centered warfare

social unrest and widespread peasant revolts.

Challenge to European governments:

How to maintain order and give the nation sufficient power to compete internationally?

47

absolutism
Absolutism

Most common response of European governments:

seek more power to deal with the problems

strengthen the king.

European Rulers tried to attain absolute power and build absolutist states.

Monarchs regulated religious sects

Abolished many liberties long held by certain areas, groups or provinces.

Created new state bureaucracies.

Tried to eliminate control by nobles and traditional representative bodies, such as parliaments.

Absolutism meant that monarchs were claiming absolute power; Divine Right of Kings.

48

road to louis xiv
Road to Louis XIV

Louis XIV’s consolidation of absolute power was a process that started with grandfather, Henry IV-(ruled 1593-1610)

Issued Edict of Nantes- granted religious liberties to Catholics and Protestants.

Protestant king who became Catholic -“Paris is worth a mass.”

Ended religious wars in France.

49

cardinal richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
  • First, punished Huguenots
    • Tear down fortified walls in their cities.
  • Second, weaken nobles power
  • Goal: Make France strongest state in Europe
    • Hapsburgs would be in his way (Thirty Years War)
    • Three Musketeers
cardinal richelieu 1585 1642
Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642 )

Until Louis XIII comes of age his mother led the government.

In 1624 she appoints Armand Jean du Plessis (Cardinal Richelieu) to the council of ministers.

As first minister, Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarch.

51

richelieu s policies
Richelieu’s Policies

Oppressive policy toward Huguenots

Moved to reduce the power of the French nobility.

Large network of spies.

Installed royal commissioners in each district.

Richelieu wanted to destroy the fence of Hapsburg territories that surrounded France.

Thus, in the thirty Years War Richelieu supported the Hapsburg’s enemies even though they were largely Protestant.

52

richilieu s legacy
Richilieu’s Legacy
  • Laid the foundation for expanded royal authority
  • Created strong resentment for the monarchy by the nobility
the practice of absolutism france under louis xiv
The Practice of Absolutism: France Under Louis XIV

The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715) most complete fulfillment of the idea of absolute monarchy in 17th Century Europe.

French policies and wars dominated Europe

Monarchs elsewhere used Louis as a model.

Louis proclaimed himself the “Sun King”

Refused to call Estates General

He built magnificent palaces and courts as symbols of his power and magnificence-Ex.:Versailles.

Reigned for 72 years (55 in his own right)

54

the fronde 1649 1652
The Fronde 1649-1652
  • Series of widespread Noble rebellions
  • Begun by the Parlement of Paris in 1649
  • The chaos of the Fronde convinced most French people that the rule of a strong King was preferred
jean baptiste colbert
Jean Baptiste Colbert
  • Was Louis XIV’s Minister of Finance
  • He wanted to make France self-sufficient
    • Did not want to rely on imports
      • High tariffs on imports to discourage.
  • Helped make France wealthiest state in Europe.
colbert louis xiv finance minister
Colbert Louis XIV finance minister
  • Created the economic base that Louis needed to fight his wars
  • Mercantilism
  • Limit imports, maximize exports
  • Accumulate gold and silver
louis personal rule 1661 1715
Louis’ personal rule 1661-1715
  • Louis did not replace Mazarin after he died in 1661
  • Strategies used by Louis to insure his power:
    • Use of Propaganda “sun King”
    • Ensured French Nobles would benefit from the growth of his own authority
    • Claim Divine Right of Kings
    • Crush Religious Dissent
    • Domesticated the Nobility at Versailles
louis xiv 1643 1713
Louis XIV (1643-1713)
  • Louis’ legacy;
    • "Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects".

Allegedly these were Louis’ last words to his heirs.

    • France emerged from Louis’ reign as the most powerful country in Europe. It was a military and imperial power. It’s economy was based upon manufacturing and trade. France had a rich cultural society in which Louis had patronized art and music.
    • However, she was also in debt, had suppressed the rights of most of it’s citizenry, and had many enemies.
versailles
Versailles

Versailles served three functions

Home

Seat of machinery of government

Palace/court.

Meant that all noble society was under his roof.

60

palace at versailles
Palace at Versailles
  • Cost over $2 billion in modern dollars
  • 36000 laborers
  • 6000 horses
  • 15000 acres of gardens, lawns and woods
  • 1400 fountains
  • Palace itself was 500 yards long
  • Small royal city
louis consolidates power
Louis Consolidates Power

1685 Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes.

Forbids Huguenots to leave France, but 200,000 flee to other places in Europe and to America.

This is why we have Huguenot Road and Huguenot Bridge in the Richmond area. They came here.

Closes schools, destroys churches.

62

french expansion
French Expansion
  • Louis wanted to expand the boundaries
  • 1667 - Invaded the Netherlands
    • They gained several towns, but nothing else
    • Many lesser countries joined together to defeat the French
france at war
France at War

Louis was almost constantly at war. Waged four wars between 1667-1713.

France most powerful country in Europe. This led other countries to gang up against France to keep France from dominating Europe.

France had a standing army of 100,000 that expanded to 400,000 in times of war.

Compare to U.S. Army today.

64

the wars of louis xiv
The Wars of Louis XIV
  • The long-range objective of French foreign policy during the reign of Louis XIV was to achieve what he called the “natural frontiers” of France:the Pyrenees, the alps, and the Rhine river.
  • To extend French power to the Rhine involved acquiring territories ruled by German Princes plus the conquest of the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces.
  • French Foreign Policy from 1648 to 1715
  • The French attempt to conquer the territories west of the Rhine involved France in four wars. France was opposed by a different coalition of European states in each war. These coalitions were trying to preserve the Balance of Power in Europe.
the war of devolution 1667 1668
The War of Devolution 1667-1668

The war of Devolution 1667-1668

Louis XIV contended that the Spanish Netherlands belonged to his wife by the custom of Devolution.

French armies invaded Flanders and Franche-Comte.

England, the United Provinces, and Sweden formed the triple alliance to counterbalance France

 Louis, wishing to avoid a prolonged war against a coalition, arranged a compromise treaty, the Peace of Aix La Chapelle

France received eleven border towns from the Spanish Netherlands but abandoned Franche-Comte

the dutch war 1672 1678
The Dutch war 1672-1678

Followed Dutch boasting that they had defeated and humbled Louis.

  • Louis first isolated the Dutch diplomatically by bribing the English to leave the triple alliance (Treaty of Dover 1670) and arranging Swedish neutrality by similar means.
  • The Dutch were divided internally by the debate over whether the United Provinces should be a decentralized republic or a centralized hereditary monarchy ruled by William of Orange.
  • As the Dutch were debating, Louis invaded. The Dutch murdered the proponent of a Republic and entrusted the defense of the country to William of Orange.
  • Again the French invaded Flanders and Franche-Comte and again the European powers formed an alliance to check the French.
dutch war cont
Dutch war, cont.
  • The new alliance included: The Holy Roman Empire, Denmark, Spain, and the Electorate of Brandenburg
  • In 1677 William of Orange married Mary, the daughter of King James II of England.
  • Louis thought this marriage would draw England into the war against France so peace negotiations were begun.
  • Treaty of Nimwegen
  • France received all of Franche-Comte and more border towns in the Spanish Netherlands.
the war of the league of augsburg 1688 1697
The War of the League of Augsburg 1688-1697
  • The inexact terminology of earlier peace treaties left the control of various territories in the vicinity of the Rhine in doubt.
  • Louis took possession of Alsace and Luxemburg.
  • This spurred yet another alliance to protect the European Balance of Power-the League of Augsburg
  • Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Sweden and several of the German States. When the English Glorious revolution of 1688 placed William of Orange as the King of England, England and the United Provinces joined the League.
  • The French were initially successful, but the French could not match the combined English and Dutch fleets. The league could not muster the strength necessary to invade France. The Peace of Ryswick (1697) resulted from this stalemate.
the war of spanish succession 1702 1713
The war of Spanish Succession 1702-1713
  • War fought to determine who would inherit the throne of Spain.
  • Charles II would die without an heir
  • The leading contenders were the Austrian Habsburgs and the French Bourbons.
  • When Charles II died in 1700 he left a will giving his throne to the grandson of Louis XIV who was to become Phillip V of Spain.
  • Louis knew that war would follow if his grandson became the King of Spain. If he refused the Crown, however France would be surrounded again by Habsburg power. Louis accepted the will.
  • The Pyrenees exist no longer.
spanish succession cont
Spanish succession, cont.
  • In this war France had only the slender aid provided by Spain and Bavaria against the Grand Alliance-put together by William of Orange.
  • England, the United Provinces, the Holy roman Empire, the Electorate of Brandenburg, and Portugal
  • From 1702-1709 the French suffered one defeat after another, but when Louis asked for peace terms, the allies provisions were so harsh that the French and Spanish carried on. In 1711, Archduke Charles became the Holy roman Emperor Charles VI and the English and French did not want one man to occupy both the imperil and the Spanish thrones as Charles V had done.
  • Allied disunity allowed Louis XIV to negotiate an acceptable peace settlement.
the treaty of utrecht 1713
The Treaty of Utrecht 1713
  • The English gained the most:
    • Gibraltar, Minorca, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, the Hudson Bay territory and the Asiento
  • Austria received the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Milan and the island of Sardinia.
  • The elector of Brandenburg was recognized as the King in Prussia
  • The Duke of Savoy was recognized as the King of Savoy and given the island of Sicily which was exchanged for Sardinia in 1720
treaty of utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht

Louis is forced to sue for peace. Treaty of Utrecht.

France gives up Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and area around Hudson bay to English.

Louis agrees that Spanish and French crown will never be united.

Austria gets Spanish Netherlands

Spain gives England control of slave trade from Africa.

Completes the decline of Spain as a major power in Europe.

Expands the British Empire.

Marks the end of French Expansionist policy.

78

slide79
HOP to RAP
  • Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman empire, Poland
  • Russia, Austria, Prussia
  • Sharks and Jelly Fish
  • Poland gets “pac manned” 1772-1795
prussia1
Prussia
  • Ruling Family: Hohenzollern family
  • Late 1600s: Hohenzollern family ambitious
  • In 1640, Frederick William inherited the titled of elector of Brandenburg
        • Brandenburg (northern Prussian territory)
  • Nickname: “Great Elector”
  • Lead his family towards absolute monarchy
the hohenzollerns
The Hohenzollerns
  • 1640- 1688: Frederick William, the Great Elector (Holy Roman Empire)

King’s of Prussia:

  • 1688-1713: Frederick I
  • 1713-1740: Frederick William I
  • 1740-1768: Frederick II (the Great)
frederick william
Frederick William
  • Raised a great army
    • Frederick would build it to one of the most powerful in Eastern Europe
    • Guides Prussia through the 30 years War
frederick i
Frederick I
  • First King of Prussia
      • Tried to imitate Louis XIV lavish ways
frederick william i
Frederick William I
  • Despised French ways
  • Got rid of the luxury of his father.
  • Doubled the Prussian Army
    • Men 6ft-8ft tall – “regiment of giants”
frederick william i and frederick ii
Frederick William I and Frederick II
  • Frederick William I worried that his son was not military enough to rule
  • Frederick II was a lover of music and poetry
    • He was once beaten in public and tried to escape his father with his “friend” Han
      • Frederick II was imprisoned and forced to watch his “friend’s” execution
      • These were attempts to toughen him up.
frederick ii
Frederick II
  • Eventually he would follow in his father’s footsteps and become a good military leader
  • War of Austrian Succession
    • Frederick wanted the land of Silesia due to its natural resources (Silesia east of Saxony)
    • He felt he could easily defeat Maria Theresa, Queen of Austria and Bohemia
    • Austria loses war and ceded Silesia to Prussia
russia1
Russia
  • Ivan III helped to free Russia from the Mongols
  • Setup a centralized government
ivan iv
Ivan IV
  • He became known as “Ivan the Terrible”
    • He came to the throne at the age of 3
      • nobles (known as boyars) would fight over who had control of him

At the age of 16 he seized power and became czar (Caesar)

First Russian ruler to use that term

ivan the terrible
Ivan the Terrible
  • He would marry Anastasia, a member of the Romanov family
  • Early rule: Known as the “good period”
  • Later Rule after Anastasia dies in 1560: “bad period”
    • Accused the boyars of poisoning his wife
  • Secret police (Oprichniks): hunted traitors to Russia
    • They dressed in black and rode black horses
    • They executed many of them and seized their land
ivan the terrible1
Ivan the Terrible
  • In 1581 during a argument with his eldest son Ivan killed him
    • This left his second son to rule
    • Russia would experience “times of trouble”
ivan the terrible2
Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible; 1533-1584) continued this process.

Defeated the remnants of Mongol power and declared himself Tsar

Added vast new territories to Russia in the east

All nobles had to serve the tsar and thus were under his control.

Oppressed peasants, tying them to the land as serfs, perpetually bound to the nobles.

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times of trouble
Times of Trouble
  • Many noble families fought for control
  • Romanov Family takes control: 1613
    • Michael Romanov was chosen (he was the grand-nephew of Ivan IV)
    • They would rule Russia until the Russian Revolution in 1917
rise of the romanovs
Rise of the Romanovs

After Ivan’s death in 1598 was a period of chaos.

Nobles were able to regain some power.

1613 Russian assembly of nobles realized that the chaos was putting them all at risk from Cossacks

Appoint Michael Romanov as Tsar, and the Romanov family rules Russia until 1917 when the Communists take over.

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peter the great
Peter the Great
  • Wanted reform Russian society
  • Wanted a warm water port
  • He stood more then 6 ft
  • By the age of 25 he ventured on a long visit to Western Europe
    • He wanted to keep his identity secret
      • At one time he worked as a ship carpenter for 4 months in the Netherlands
peter the great 1672 1725
Peter the Great (1672-1725)

Peter the Great takes the throne in 1682 and transforms Russia, determined to westernize it. Why?

He wanted to import modern military methods and technology and modern governmental administration in order to make his country more powerful.

He wanted to adopt mercantilist economic policies in order to strengthen the tax base to support his military,

This required modernizing manufacturing and production.

Attempting to catch up with the power and strength of Europe.

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window on the west
Window on the West

In war with Sweden, Peter captures modern Estonia and Latvia from the Swedes,

Gave Russia a port on the Baltic making it the dominant power in the Baltic.

“window on the west”

Also eases travel between Russia and the rest of Europe.

Builds St. Petersburg in NW Russia as a symbolic window on the West, which remains the Russian capital until 1917.

Peter gained state control of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1721 by abolishing the position of patriarch and placing administration of the church under state control

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westernization
Westernization
  • Peter wanted Russia to act more like its counterparts in Western Europe
    • Took control of the Russian Orthodox Church
    • Hired European officers to train his soldiers
    • Beard Tax: “Beards are a ridiculous ornament”
    • Ordered the nobles to wear Western fashions
      • Introduced potatoes to Russia
st petersburg
St. Petersburg
  • Would be the seaport Peter wanted
  • “window to the west”
  • Originally was a swamp:
    • Along the Neva River (Baltic coast)
  • Somewhere from 25,000 to 100,000 people died in the building of the city
effect of peter s policies
Effect of Peter’s Policies

As a result of Peter’s Policies:

Western ideas and technology flowed into Russia and Russians were exposed to Western culture.

New class of Russian educated nobility emerged.

Split between the nobility and the average citizen widened and deepened.

Russia became a major power, moved much closer to Europe and was much more a factor in European affairs.

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catherine the great
Catherine the Great
  • Ascended to throne in 1762
    • Husband Peter III murdered.
      • Ruthless and strong ruler
      • Gained land in the Baltic
      • Partitioned Poland:
        • Broken up between Russia, Prussia and Austria
austria
Austria
  • After 30 years war, Habsburgs began to focus on Austrian Empire rather than Holy Roman Empire.
  • Defeated Ottoman Empire in 1697 at the battle of Zenta, gaining Hungary.
  • Charles VI –Pragmatic Sanction
  • Maria Theresa becomes empress in 1740
  • War of Austrian Succession
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