The Magna Carta. … presented their demands to him in written form as the Magna Carta (Great Charter). Served as the major source of traditional English respect for individual rights & liberties… served as a contract between the king & nobles of England
…presented their demands to him in written form as the Magna Carta (Great Charter).
Charles I becomes king after James dies in 1625.
Also believed in divine right monarchy and just as conservative on religious issues.
Charles I was forced by Parliament to accept the Petition of Right passed by Parliament in 1628
The Petition of Right stated that the King could not:
impose cruel and unusual punishments on prisoners
impose military rule during peacetime
require homeowners to shelter troops without consent
obtain taxes, gifts, or loans without the consent of Parliament.
Ship Money Tax 1634
1649 Charles and his Cavaliers are defeated by Puritan forces led by Oliver Cromwell
Beginning of period known as the Interregnum.
Charles is beheaded, monarchy is abolished, House of Lords is abolished and England is proclaimed to be a republic ruled by Parliament.
Cromwell soon finds Parliament inconvenient, dispersed it, and created a military dictatorship
He instituted puritan social policies in England
censored the press, closed the theaters and outlawed sports. Dancing and drinking were considered socially unacceptable.
When Cromwell dies in 1658, a majority in England are ready to end the Puritan experiment
Charles II, son of the slain Charles I, is invited in 1660 to take the throne and return England to monarchy.
The restoration of Charles II did not immediately solve problems that had caused the civil war.
Still had to work out state attitude toward religion and role of Monarch.
Monarchy, Anglican Church, Parliament
1685 Charles II dies without an heir and the crown passes to brother, James II,
He is Catholic. Parliament is strongly Protestant.
James II passes Declaration of Indulgence 1687
Suspended all laws excluding Catholics and Puritans from office.
Parliament does nothing.
Why does James’ second marriage and birth of a son change things?
James II Protestant Daughter Mary is married to William of Orange (Dutch).
1688 Group of prominent English noblemen invited them to invade England and take the throne.
James flees and England has another revolution with almost no bloodshed.
1689 Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary as joint Monarchs on the condition that they accept the Bill of Rights.
Terms of Bill of Rights
affirmed Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxes
standing armies could be raised only with the consent of parliament
citizens have right to petition government, keep arms, have a jury trial and not be subject to excessive bail.
The Birth of Modern Political Theory
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
John Locke (1632-1704)
Two Treatises of Civil Government (1690)
17th Century an age of many conflicts and crises
religious and state-centered warfare
social unrest and widespread peasant revolts.
Challenge to European governments:
How to maintain order and give the nation sufficient power to compete internationally?
Most common response of European governments:
seek more power to deal with the problems
strengthen the king.
European Rulers tried to attain absolute power and build absolutist states.
Monarchs regulated religious sects
Abolished many liberties long held by certain areas, groups or provinces.
Created new state bureaucracies.
Tried to eliminate control by nobles and traditional representative bodies, such as parliaments.
Absolutism meant that monarchs were claiming absolute power; Divine Right of Kings.
Louis XIV’s consolidation of absolute power was a process that started with grandfather, Henry IV-(ruled 1593-1610)
Issued Edict of Nantes- granted religious liberties to Catholics and Protestants.
Protestant king who became Catholic -“Paris is worth a mass.”
Ended religious wars in France.
Until Louis XIII comes of age his mother led the government.
In 1624 she appoints Armand Jean du Plessis (Cardinal Richelieu) to the council of ministers.
As first minister, Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarch.
Oppressive policy toward Huguenots
Moved to reduce the power of the French nobility.
Large network of spies.
Installed royal commissioners in each district.
Richelieu wanted to destroy the fence of Hapsburg territories that surrounded France.
Thus, in the thirty Years War Richelieu supported the Hapsburg’s enemies even though they were largely Protestant.
The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715) most complete fulfillment of the idea of absolute monarchy in 17th Century Europe.
French policies and wars dominated Europe
Monarchs elsewhere used Louis as a model.
Louis proclaimed himself the “Sun King”
Refused to call Estates General
He built magnificent palaces and courts as symbols of his power and magnificence-Ex.:Versailles.
Reigned for 72 years (55 in his own right)
Allegedly these were Louis’ last words to his heirs.
Versailles served three functions
Seat of machinery of government
Meant that all noble society was under his roof.
1685 Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes.
Forbids Huguenots to leave France, but 200,000 flee to other places in Europe and to America.
This is why we have Huguenot Road and Huguenot Bridge in the Richmond area. They came here.
Closes schools, destroys churches.
Louis was almost constantly at war. Waged four wars between 1667-1713.
France most powerful country in Europe. This led other countries to gang up against France to keep France from dominating Europe.
France had a standing army of 100,000 that expanded to 400,000 in times of war.
Compare to U.S. Army today.
The war of Devolution 1667-1668
Louis XIV contended that the Spanish Netherlands belonged to his wife by the custom of Devolution.
French armies invaded Flanders and Franche-Comte.
England, the United Provinces, and Sweden formed the triple alliance to counterbalance France
Louis, wishing to avoid a prolonged war against a coalition, arranged a compromise treaty, the Peace of Aix La Chapelle
France received eleven border towns from the Spanish Netherlands but abandoned Franche-Comte
Followed Dutch boasting that they had defeated and humbled Louis.
Louis is forced to sue for peace. Treaty of Utrecht.
France gives up Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and area around Hudson bay to English.
Louis agrees that Spanish and French crown will never be united.
Austria gets Spanish Netherlands
Spain gives England control of slave trade from Africa.
Completes the decline of Spain as a major power in Europe.
Expands the British Empire.
Marks the end of French Expansionist policy.
King’s of Prussia:
At the age of 16 he seized power and became czar (Caesar)
First Russian ruler to use that term
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible; 1533-1584) continued this process.
Defeated the remnants of Mongol power and declared himself Tsar
Added vast new territories to Russia in the east
All nobles had to serve the tsar and thus were under his control.
Oppressed peasants, tying them to the land as serfs, perpetually bound to the nobles.
After Ivan’s death in 1598 was a period of chaos.
Nobles were able to regain some power.
1613 Russian assembly of nobles realized that the chaos was putting them all at risk from Cossacks
Appoint Michael Romanov as Tsar, and the Romanov family rules Russia until 1917 when the Communists take over.
Peter the Great takes the throne in 1682 and transforms Russia, determined to westernize it. Why?
He wanted to import modern military methods and technology and modern governmental administration in order to make his country more powerful.
He wanted to adopt mercantilist economic policies in order to strengthen the tax base to support his military,
This required modernizing manufacturing and production.
Attempting to catch up with the power and strength of Europe.
In war with Sweden, Peter captures modern Estonia and Latvia from the Swedes,
Gave Russia a port on the Baltic making it the dominant power in the Baltic.
“window on the west”
Also eases travel between Russia and the rest of Europe.
Builds St. Petersburg in NW Russia as a symbolic window on the West, which remains the Russian capital until 1917.
Peter gained state control of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1721 by abolishing the position of patriarch and placing administration of the church under state control
As a result of Peter’s Policies:
Western ideas and technology flowed into Russia and Russians were exposed to Western culture.
New class of Russian educated nobility emerged.
Split between the nobility and the average citizen widened and deepened.
Russia became a major power, moved much closer to Europe and was much more a factor in European affairs.