Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour
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Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Animal Behaviour. The beewolf wasp ( Philanthus triangulum ). Beewolf wasp burrows. Niko Tinbergen: one of the founders of ethology. The Scientific Method. Observation and causal question H ypothesis P redictions Test of predictions Conclusion.

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The beewolf wasp philanthus triangulum
The beewolf wasp(Philanthus triangulum)




The scientific method
The Scientific Method

  • Observation and causal question

  • Hypothesis

  • Predictions

  • Test of predictions

  • Conclusion


The scientific method1
The Scientific Method

  • Observation and causal question: Beewolves find the entrance to their own nests. How do they do it?

  • Hypothesis: They use local landmarks as cues

  • Predictions: If they use local landmarks then manipulating those landmarks should mislead them

  • Test of predictions: Experiments

  • Conclusion: Yes, local landmarks are used by beewolves as cues in finding own nest


Black-headed gull

… and its chicks


The scientific method2
The Scientific Method

  • Observationand causal question - black headed gulls remove eggshells. Why did black headed gulls evolve behaviour of eggshell removal?

  • Hypothesis - maybe this behaviour helps parent gulls to conceal their offspring from predators

  • Predictions - if so, broken eggshells should help predators find food

  • Test of predictions - experiment

  • Conclusion - yes, eggshell removal

    appears to help parent gulls conceal

    offspring from predators



Oystercatcher

Kittiwake

Black-headed gull


Oystercatcher

Solitary nesting

Nest predators

Immediate eggshell removal

Kittiwake

Group nesting

No nest predators

No eggshell removal

Black-headed gull

Group nesting

Nest predation present

Delayed eggshell removal


Why

do

babies

cry???


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