Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour
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Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Animal Behaviour. The beewolf wasp ( Philanthus triangulum ). Beewolf wasp burrows. Niko Tinbergen: one of the founders of ethology. The Scientific Method. Observation and causal question H ypothesis P redictions Test of predictions Conclusion.

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Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Animal Behaviour

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Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour

Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Animal Behaviour


The beewolf wasp philanthus triangulum

The beewolf wasp(Philanthus triangulum)


Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour

Beewolf wasp burrows


Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour

Niko Tinbergen: one of the founders of ethology


The scientific method

The Scientific Method

  • Observation and causal question

  • Hypothesis

  • Predictions

  • Test of predictions

  • Conclusion


The scientific method1

The Scientific Method

  • Observation and causal question: Beewolves find the entrance to their own nests. How do they do it?

  • Hypothesis: They use local landmarks as cues

  • Predictions: If they use local landmarks then manipulating those landmarks should mislead them

  • Test of predictions: Experiments

  • Conclusion: Yes, local landmarks are used by beewolves as cues in finding own nest


Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour

Black-headed gull

… and its chicks


The scientific method2

The Scientific Method

  • Observationand causal question - black headed gulls remove eggshells. Why did black headed gulls evolve behaviour of eggshell removal?

  • Hypothesis - maybe this behaviour helps parent gulls to conceal their offspring from predators

  • Predictions - if so, broken eggshells should help predators find food

  • Test of predictions - experiment

  • Conclusion - yes, eggshell removal

    appears to help parent gulls conceal

    offspring from predators


Proximate causes ultimate causes of behavour

Proximate causesUltimate causesof behavour


Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour

Oystercatcher

Kittiwake

Black-headed gull


Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour

Oystercatcher

Solitary nesting

Nest predators

Immediate eggshell removal

Kittiwake

Group nesting

No nest predators

No eggshell removal

Black-headed gull

Group nesting

Nest predation present

Delayed eggshell removal


Proximate and ultimate causes of animal behaviour

Why

do

babies

cry???


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