Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Animal Behaviour. The beewolf wasp ( Philanthus triangulum ). Beewolf wasp burrows. Niko Tinbergen: one of the founders of ethology. The Scientific Method. Observation and causal question H ypothesis P redictions Test of predictions Conclusion.
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Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Animal Behaviour
Beewolf wasp burrows
Niko Tinbergen: one of the founders of ethology
… and its chicks
appears to help parent gulls conceal
offspring from predators
Immediate eggshell removal
No nest predators
No eggshell removal
Nest predation present
Delayed eggshell removal