Chapter eleven chemical dependency the crisis of addiction
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Chapter Eleven: Chemical Dependency: The Crisis of Addiction. Costs. Long history of attempting to treat substance abuse. Whole economies have been founded on drug use. Big business for legal and illegal drugs Big business for drug-related medical care Lost productivity

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Chapter Eleven: Chemical Dependency: The Crisis of Addiction

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Chapter eleven chemical dependency the crisis of addiction

Chapter Eleven: Chemical Dependency: The Crisis of Addiction


Costs

Costs

  • Long history of attempting to treat substance abuse.

  • Whole economies have been founded on drug use.

  • Big business for legal and illegal drugs

  • Big business for drug-related medical care

  • Lost productivity

  • Murders, fractured families, suicide

  • Insurance, property crime, law enforcement

  • Treatment


Prevalence in us

Prevalence in US

  • 10% of those who drink, consume 50% of the alcohol

  • 16M people who are heavy drinkers

  • 55M binge drinkers (5 or more drinks at one setting)

  • 18.7M who need treatment for alcohol use

  • 22M who need treatment for legal and illegal drugs

  • 71.5 M Tobacco use

  • Controlled use

    • Is this a reality for an abuser or an addict?


Prevalence in us1

Prevalence in US

  • Drug-abusing behavior in 15-54 year age group

  • 1 in 13 will become dependent on controlled substance

  • 1 in 6 will become dependent on alcohol


Sociocultural determinants of substance abuse

Sociocultural Determinants of Substance Abuse

  • Set vs. setting - have a great effect on the behavior of the drug used

  • Set = the mental and emotional state of the user

  • - including expectations, intelligence, personality, feelings, and so on

  • Setting = the social and physical environment of the user at the time of use

  • -immediate surrounding, such as a living room, bar, legal and religious perspective


Sociocultural determinants of substance abuse1

Sociocultural Determinants of Substance Abuse

  • Alcohol and drugs have culturally specific:

    • Rules

    • Sanctions

    • Prohibitions

    • Admonitions

    • Permissions

  • Although there are cultural implications, do not stereotype!


  • Alcohol number one abused substance

    Alcohol: Number One Abused Substance

    • Duration (longevity, legacy, and history)

    • Legality (limited conditions for jail)

    • Widespread use

    • Indirect financial costs

    • Psychological costs

    • Physical costs

    • Links to crime

    • Implication in accidents

    • Suicide

    • Alcohol ISa drug

    • Interpersonal relationships

    • Polyuse

    • Embroilment in controversy (physical or mental disease?)


    Models of addiction

    Models of Addiction

    • Behavioral Learning Model

    • Biopsychosocial Models

    • Cognitive Models

    • Disease Model

    • Genetic Predisposition Model

    • Lifestyle Model

    • Moral Model

    • Parental Influence Model


    Models of addiction cont

    Models of Addiction Cont.

    • Peer-Cluster Model

    • Personality Model

    • Prescriptive Model

    • Problem Behavior Model

    • Psychoanalytic Model

    • Psychosocial Model

    • Sanctioned-Use Model

    • Sociocultural Models

    • Stress-Coping Model


    Definitions of commonly used terms pg 354 356

    Definitions of Commonly Used Terms (Pg. 354-356)

    • Abuse

      • Chronic, recurrent misuse of chemicals.

      • One or more of the following occur in a maladaptive pattern during a 12 month period:

        • Failure to fulfill major role obligations (work, school, or family)

        • Physical impairment that creates a hazard

        • Recurrent legal or social problems

  • Addiction

    • Physical reactions include the development of tolerance and withdrawal.

    • Psychologically, it is the compulsion to use drugs regardless of the negative consequences.

    • Progressive, potentially fatal, and marked by preoccupation with chemical use.

  • Addictive behavior

    • Preferred by many in the field because it focuses on behavior.

    • Is used to describe a broad spectrum of problematic compulsions.

  • Alcoholism

    • Addiction to alcohol.


  • Definitions of commonly used terms cont

    Definitions of Commonly Used Terms Cont.

    • Chemical dependent

      • Addiction to drugs.

  • Codependent

    • Reciprocal dependency of the addict in need of care and a caretaker’s need to control the addict’s behavior.

  • Dependence

    • Cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues to use the substance despite significant chemical-related problems.

  • Drug

    • Psychoactive substance that has a direct and significant impact on the processes of the mind with respect to thinking, feeling, and acting.

  • Enabler

    • A person who allows the addict to continue the addiction rather than suffering the full extent of the substance-related consequences.


  • Definitions of commonly used terms cont1

    Definitions of Commonly Used Terms Cont.

    • Habituation

      • Degree to which one is accustomed to taking a certain drug.

  • Misuse

    • Use of a substance with some adverse physical, psychological, social, or legal consequence.

  • Relapse/Slip

    • Use of a substance after a period of abstinence.

  • Tolerance

    • When more of a substance is needed to achieve the same effect.

  • Use

    • The intake of a chemical substance with the intent of altering one’s state of consciousness.

  • Withdrawal

    • Physical and psychological symptoms as a result of the reduction or cessation of a drug.


  • Defense mechanisms pg 356 357

    Defense Mechanisms (pg. 356-357)

    • Denial - (refuse to acknowledge)

    • Displacement - (venting toward another)

    • Fantasy - Escape

    • Projection - (Attribute motives to others)

    • Rationalization (Excuses)

    • Intellectualization (impersonalization)

    • Minimizing (Play down the seriousness)

    • Reaction formation (defense against perceived threat)

    • Regression (reverting back)

    • Repression (burying in unconscious)


    Enabling and codependency

    Enabling and Codependency

    • Enabling - has to do with one's behavior toward a chemical dependent.

    • Codependency - has to do with one's relationship to the chemical dependent


    Enabling and codependency1

    Enabling and Codependency

    • Suppression (stiff upper lip)

    • Dissociation (distancing)

    • Repression (bury in unconscious memory)

    • Escape to therapy (catharsis, but no change)

    • Intellectualization (distance with details/control)

    • Displacement (moving feelings elsewhere)

    • Reaction formation (taking over for the addict)

    • Passive aggression (covert behavior)

    • Hypochondriasis (converts anger into physical complaints)


    Children in alcoholic families

    Children in Alcoholic Families

    • Personality Roles

      • The Scapegoat (acting out child)

      • The Hero (the little adult)

      • The Lost Child (adjusts without feelings)

      • The Family Mascot (placates and comforts everyone)

  • Family Rules in Alcoholic Families - that children have to adopt to survive)

    • Do not talk/do not have problems

    • Do not trust

    • Do not feel

    • Do not behave differently

    • Do not blame chemical dependency

    • Do behave as I want

    • Do be better and more responsible

    • Do not have fun


  • Adult children of alcoholics acoa

    Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA)

    • Facts

      • Addiction has a genetic component

      • Addictive behavior can be learned

      • ACOA’s tend to marry addicts

  • Emotional issues

    • Trust

    • Dependency

    • Control

    • Guilt

    • Identification and expression of feelings

  • Effects of childhood roles

    • Adaptive roles from childhood follow them into adulthood

    • (heroes, lost child, placaters, family mascots, acting-out)


  • Treatment approaches

    Treatment Approaches

    • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) (pg. 365 - 12 Steps)

    • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) (Stinking-thinking)

    • Inpatient Treatment: The Minnesota Model (28 days)

    • Outpatient Programs (1-2 times per week, with much criticism)

    • Contingency Management (CM) (reward/reinforcement based)


    Intervention strategies

    Intervention Strategies

    • Motivation and Stages of Change

      • Precontemplation (using but seen as a problem)

      • Contemplation (using but thinking about it)

      • Determination/Preparation (quit in the future)

      • Action (taking active steps/treatment)

      • Maintenance - about 6 months (behavior change with continued work)

      • Termination - about 5 years (cognitive and emotional changes, support system in place)


    Assessment

    Assessment

    • Personality Inventories

    • Direct Measures

    • Parsimony (simple questions)

    • Computer-Administered Direct Measures

    • The Problem Is . . . (double what ever the person self reports)

    • Motivation to Change (instruments)

    • Intake Assessment

    • Assessment of Spirituality

    • Triage Assessment (seek collateral info. and assume deception)

    • Diagnostic Intake (formal clinical assessment)


    Detoxification

    Detoxification

    • Can be a serious medical process

    • Addict may be given small, controlled amount of the addicted substance to reduce severe symptoms

    • Common symptoms

      • Delirium Tremens (DTs)

      • Somatic complaints

      • Excessive sleep

      • Mood swings

  • Detoxification without treatment is nearly always futile.


  • Principles of treatment

    Principles of Treatment

    • Treatment Techniques (solution-focused, 12 step, cognitive behavioral, reinforcement based, rational-emotive behavioral)

    • Treatment Goals (actions)

    • Treatment Protocol (schedule in activities)

    • Individual Therapy

    • The Treatment Group

    • Learning Relationship Skills

    • Accepting Responsibility ("what part did you play")

    • Getting Past Denial (1. presence and magnitude, 2. life problems)

    • Confrontation (potent, but dangerous)


    Principles of treatment cont

    Principles of Treatment Cont.

    • Overcoming Environmental Cues That Lead to Drinking (playmates and playgrounds)

    • Treating the Family

      • Family Therapy Session

      • Therapy for the Children

  • Aftercare and Relapse Prevention

    • Cognitive-Behavioral Boosters (statements, messages)

    • Pharmacology

  • Euphoria (over kill)

  • AA's Role in Aftercare


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