Wai initiative on accessibility
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Ministerial NEtwoRk for Valorising Activities in digitisation. WAI Initiative on accessibility. Quality of a web site. The criteria for a quality cultural web communication are based on two pillars : Accessibility (WCAG/W3C) Usability (ISO 9241-11) basic principles

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WAI Initiative on accessibility

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Wai initiative on accessibility

Ministerial NEtwoRk for Valorising Activities in digitisation

WAI Initiative on accessibility

Quality of a web site

Quality of a web site

  • The criteria for a quality cultural web communication are based on two pillars:

    • Accessibility (WCAG/W3C)

    • Usability (ISO 9241-11) basic principles

  • The key concept of quality web site means to pay attention to the users and their requirements.

Quality definitions 1

Quality: definitions (1)

  • Usability:

    • «The capability of the software product to enable specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, productivity, safety and satisfaction in specified contexts of use.»(ISO/IEC 9126-1:1992)

Quality definitions 2

Quality: definitions(2)

  • Accessibility:

    • «A Web site is considered to be accessible when theinformational content, navigationalmodes and all theinteractivefeatures present are accessible to all users, regardless of disabilities and independently of technology used to access the site and of the context in which they are working whilst accessing the site»(ISO TS 16071:2002)

Web for everyone

Web for Everyone

  • Accessibility:

    • «The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect»

    • Web for Everyoneavailable to all people, whatever their hardware, software, network infrastructure, native language, culture, geographical location, or physical or mental ability

Dimensions of accessibility

Dimensions of accessibility

  • Connecting time

  • Availability

  • Compatibility of browser

  • Accessibility of disabilities

Elements of connection

Elements of connection

Context of users

Context of users

  • Many users may be operating in contexts very different from your own :

    • They may not be able to see, hear, move

    • They may have difficulty reading or comprehending text.

    • They may not have or be able to use a keyboard or mouse.

    • They may have a text-only screen, a small screen, or a slow Internet connection.

    • They may not speak or understand fluently the language in which the document is written.

Context of users cont

Context of users(cont.)

  • They may be in a situation where their eyes, ears, or hands are busy or interfered with (e.g., driving to work, working in a loud environment, etc.).

  • They may have an early version of a browser, a different browser entirely, a voice browser, or a different operating system.

  • Content developers must consider these different situations during page design

  • Definition of disability

    Definition of disability

    • The WHO World Health Organisation in 2001:

      • refers to “human functions” in general and not simply to disability.

      • Moves away from the consequences of a “disfunction” to components of “health”, grouping them together under the heading of “health domain”

      • Participation, not exclusion

    Different disabilities

    Different disabilities

    How do disabled people use the web

    How do disabled people use the Web?

    • Throught “enabling” technology. This can be hardware or software which:

      • effect “equivalent” conversion of the information from one sense organ to another. Some examples are:

        • from the computer monitor (sight) to touch (Braille bar for visually-impaired users),

        • from the computer monitor (sight) to sound (vocal synthesis for visually-impaired users),

        • from sound (audio documents) to sight (text documents) (vocal recognition for motor-disabled and deaf users);

    How do disabled people use the web 2

    How do disabled people use the Web? (2)

    • permit different ways of using certain tools, for example:

      • special mouse (for motor-disabled);

      • special keyboard (for motor-disabled);

      • compensate for disability of a sensory faculty, for example:

      • enlarging the text on the computer monitor (for the visually impaired)

    How do disabled people use the web 3

    How do disabled people use the Web? (3)

    • Specific tools are available to compensate for other types of disability :

      • for users with difficulty in distinguishing colours

      • for users affected by photosensitive epilepsy

      • for users with learning difficulties or language difficulties



    Web accessibility initiative

    Web Accessibility Initiative

    • The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has promoted the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI).

    • The objective is to produce strategies, guidelines, resources to make the Web accessible to people with disabilities http://www.w3.org/WAI/

    Web accessibility initiative1

    Web Accessibility Initiative

    • WAI deals with Web accessibility in the lay sense; that is, not only as far as regardscontents, but also in terms of thetoolsused to realise the Web pages, thebrowserand, more generically,technologiesfor Web access.

    • Accessibility is a process involving many actors (people, developers, user agents). Hence:

      • WCAG

      • ATAG

      • UAAG

    Web content accessibility guidelines

    Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

    • were developed by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Working Group (WCAG WG);

    • became a W3C Recommendation 5 May 1999;

    • explain how to make accessible Web sites;

    • contain general guidelines;

    • have three priority levels of normative checkpoints;

    • have extensive supporting resources

    Web content accessibility guidelines 2

    Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (2)

    • It explains how to make Web content accessible to people with disabilities. Web "content" generally refers to the information in a Web page or Web application, including text, images, forms, sounds, and such.

    • WCAG 1.0 has 14 guidelines that are general principles of accessible design. Each guideline has one or more checkpoints that explain how the guideline applies in a specific area (65 in total).

    Resources for wcag

    Resources for WCAG

    • There are extensive implementation support resources for WCAG 1.0, including:

      • WCAG 1.0 Checklist

      • WCAG 1.0 Techniques

      • WCAG 1.0 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)WCAG 1.0 Conformance Logos

      • WCAG 1.0 TranslationsWCAG 1.0 Fact Sheet

      • WCAG 1.0 Curriculum

      • QuickTips for Accessible Web Sites

      • Evaluating Web Sites for Accessibility

      • Implementation Planning for Web Accessibility

      • Planning Web Accessibility Training

    Wcag 1 0 conformance level

    WCAG 1.0: conformance level

    • Three priorities:

      • Priority 1 (A-compliant):

        • Criteria a web developermustsatisfy

        • Basic requirement for some groups to be able to access web documents

      • Priority 2 (AA-compliant):

        • Criteria a web developershouldsatisfy

        • Removes significant barriers to accessing web documents

      • Priority 3 (AAA-compliant):

        • Criteria a web developermaysatisfy

        • Improves access to web documents

    Wcag 1 0 level of conformance

    WCAG 1.0: Level of conformance

    • Level A:

      • all priority 1 checkpoints are satisfied

    • Level AA:

      • all priority 1 and 2 checkpoints are satisfied

    • Level AAA:

      • all priority 1, 2 and 3 checkpoints are satisfied

    Synthesis of wcag 1 0 guidelines

    Synthesis of WCAG 1.0 guidelines

    • Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content. Non-text element includes: images, graphical representations of text (including symbols), image map region

    • Don't rely on color alone. Ensure that all information conveyed with color is also available without color.

    • Use markup and style sheets and do so properly. Use style sheets to control layout and presentation. Use relative rather than absolute units in markup language attribute values and style sheet property values.

    • Clarify natural language usage.Clearly identify changes in the natural language of a document's text and any text equivalents

    Synthesis of wcag 1 0 guidelines cont

    Synthesis of WCAG 1.0 guidelines(cont.)

    • Create tables that transform gracefully. Ensure that tables have necessary markup to betransformed by accessible browsers and other user agents.

    • Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully. Ensure that pagesare accessible even when newer technologies are not supported or are turned off.

    • Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes. Ensure that moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating objects or pages may be paused or stopped.

    Synthesis of wcag 1 0 guidelines cont1

    Synthesis of WCAG 1.0 guidelines(cont.)

    • Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces Ensure that the user interface follows principles of accessible design: device-independent access to functionality, keyboard operability, self-voicing, etc.

    • Design for device-independence Use features that enable activation of page elements via a variety of input devices.

    • Use interim solutions so that assistive technologies and older browsers will operate correctly.

    • Use W3C technologies and guidelines according to specification. Where it is not possible to use a W3C technology, or doing so results in material that does not transform gracefully, provide an alternative version of the content that is accessible.

    Synthesis of wcag 1 0 guidelines cont2

    Synthesis of WCAG 1.0 guidelines(cont.)

    • Provide context and orientation information. Provide context and orientation information to help users understand complex pages or elements.

    • Provide clear navigation mechanisms. Provide clear and consistent navigation mechanisms -- orientation information, navigation bars, a site map, etc. -- to increase the likelihood that a person will find what they are looking for at a site.

    • Ensure that documents are clear and simple so they may be more easily understood.

    Example 1 images

    Example 1: images

    • Provide atext equivalentfor every non-text element

      • (e.g. via «alt», «longdesc», or in element content)

      • This includes:

        • Images

        • graphical representations of text (including symbols)

        • image map regions

        • animations (e.g., animated GIFs)

        • applets and programmatic objects

        • ascii art, frames, scripts, images used as list bullets, spacers, graphical buttons

        • sounds (played with or without user interaction)

        • stand-alone audio files, audio tracks of video, and video.

    Example 1 images1

    Example 1: images

    Example 1 images2

    Example 1: images

    Example 2 color

    Example 2: color

    • Ensure that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black and white screen. [Priority 2 for images, Priority 3 for text]

    Example 3 multimedia

    Example 3: multimedia

    • Until user agents can automatically read aloud the text equivalent of a visual track, provide an auditory description of the important information of the visual track of a multimedia presentation. [Priority 1]

    Exemple 4 code validation

    Exemple 4: code validation

    • Create documents that validate to published formal grammars. Use for example W3C validator. Important show DOCTYPE.[Priority 2]

    Example 5 relative units

    Example 5: relative units

    • Use relative units (% or em) rather than absolute units in:

      • markup language attribute values

      • style sheet property values

        [Priority 2]

    Example 6 metadata

    Example 6: metadata

    • Provide metadata to add semantic information to pages and sites. For example, use DUBLIN CORE to indicate the

      • Document author(<meta name="DC.Creator" content="Oreste Signore" />)

      • Content type (<meta name="DC.Subject" content= “islamic art" /> )

      • etc.[Priority 2]

    Wcag 2 0 principle 1

    WCAG 2.0: principle 1

    • Content must be perceivable.

      • Provide text alternatives for all non-text content

      • Provide synchronized alternatives for multimedia

      • Ensure that information and structure can be separated from presentation

      • Make it easy to distinguish foreground information from its background

    Wcag 2 0 principle 2

    WCAG 2.0: principle 2

    • Interface components in the content must be operable.

      • Make all functionality operable via a keyboard interface

      • Allow users to control time limits on their reading or interaction

      • Allow users to avoid content that could cause seizures due to photosensitivity

      • Provide mechanisms to help users find content, orient themselves within it, and navigate through it

      • Help users avoid mistakes and make it easy to correct mistakes that do occur

    Wcag 2 0 principle 3

    WCAG 2.0: principle 3

    • Content and controls must be understandable.

      • Make text content readable and understandable.

      • Make the placement and functionality of content predictable.

    Wcag 2 0 principle 4

    WCAG 2.0: principle 4

    • Content should be robust enough to work with current and future user agents (including assistive technologies)

      • Support compatibility with current and future user agents (including assistive technologies)

      • Ensure that content is accessible or provide an accessible alternative

    Wcag 2 0 some concepts

    WCAG 2.0: some concepts

    • Baseline

      • The set of technologies that an author assumes are supported and turned on in accessible user agents

    • Conformance

      • A and AA for minimum or enhanced accessibility level

      • AAA achieves additional accessibility enhancements

      • AAA requires that at least 50% of level 3 success criteria are satisfied

    Wcag 1 0 vs wcag 2 0

    WCAG 1.0 vs WCAG 2.0

    • WCAG 2.0 applicable to a variety of situations and technologies, including those that not yet exist

    • Checkpoints in WCAG 1.0 seemed to be of different importance (priority level)

    • All WCAG 2.0 success criteria are essential for some people

    Thank you for your attention

    Thank you for your attention!

    • Questions?

    • References

      • utilityLinks.html

      • http://www.minervaeurope.org

      • http://www.minervaeurope.org/MEDCULT/home.html

    • Oreste Signore

      • [email protected]

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