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Immune System. Why do we need the immune system? *pathogens* 3 Lines of Defense. First and Second Line of Defense (Innate) (non-specific) (genetic) Physical Barriers 2. Chemical Barriers

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Immune System

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Immune System


Why do we need the immune system?

*pathogens*

3 Lines of Defense


  • First and Second Line of Defense (Innate) (non-specific)

    (genetic)

    • Physical Barriers

      2. Chemical Barriers

      See Table 21.1 in text!


Granulocytes

3. Cellular Defenses – Defensive Cells

Include:

  • Basophils

  • Mast cells

  • Eosinophils

  • Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes)

  • Dendritic cells


Agranulocytes

  • Monocytes

  • Lymphocytes

    Natural Killer Cells:targets cells with abnormal or unusual plasma membrane membrane


4. Inflammation

Triggers – abrasions, pathogens, chemical irritations, distortion or disturbances of cells, and extreme temps.

Functions –

  • Characterized by cardinal signs:

  • calor

  • rubor

  • tumor

  • dolor

  • Histamine, bradykinins, prostaglandins,


5. Fever (aka pyrexia)

  • Febrile

  • Function

  • pyrogens


6. Molecular Defenses (both innate and adaptive!)

  • Interferon

  • Complement

  • Iron-binding proteins

  • Defensins


Questions

21.14 Name the physical and chemical factors that provide protection from disease in the skin and mucus membranes.

21.15 Which internal defenses provide protection against microbes that penetrate the skin and mucous membranes?

21.16 What is the name for the antimicrobial proteins that prevent viral replication?

21.18 Describe the phases of phagocytosis.

21.19 How are microbes killed following their ingestion by a phagocyte?


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