File handling with php
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File Handling with PHP . Objectives. Open and close files Write data to files Read data from files Manage files and directories. Files and PHP. File Handling Data Storage Though slower than a database Manipulating uploaded files From forms Creating Files for download.

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File Handling with PHP

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File Handling with PHP


Objectives

  • Open and close files

  • Write data to files

  • Read data from files

  • Manage files and directories


Files and PHP

  • File Handling

    • Data Storage

      • Though slower than a database

    • Manipulating uploaded files

      • From forms

    • Creating Files for download


Opening and Closing File Streams

  • A stream is a channel used for accessing a resource that you can read from and write to

  • The input stream reads data from a resource (such as a file)

  • The output stream writes data to a resource

    1. Open the file stream with the fopen() function

    2. Write data to or read data from the file stream

    3. Close the file stream with the fclose() function


Opening a File Stream

  • A handle is a special type of variable that PHP uses to represent a resource such as a file

  • The fopen() function opens a handle to a file stream

  • The syntax for the fopen() function is:

    open_file = fopen(“text file”, “mode”);

  • A file pointer is a special type of variable that refers to the currently selected line or character in a file


Opening a File Stream (continued)

Mode arguments of the fopen() function


PHP – File IO – Opening a file: mode

7


Opening a File Stream (continued)

$BowlersFile = fopen(“bowlers.txt”, “r+”);

Figure 1 Location of the file pointer when the fopen() function uses a modeargument of “r+”


Opening a File Stream (continued)

$BowlersFile = fopen(“bowlers.txt”, “a+”);

Figure 2 Location of the file pointer when the fopen() function uses a modeargument of “a+”


PHP – File IO - Reading

  • Open a file

  • $fp= fopen("test.txt","r");

  • // Read 10 bytes

  • $contents = fread($fp, 10);

  • fclose($fp);


PHP – File IO - Reading

  • Open a file

  • $fp= fopen("test.txt","r");

  • // Read the whole file

  • $contents = fread($fp, filesize("test.txt"));

  • fclose($fp);


PHP – File IO - Writing

  • $handle = fopen("test.txt", "w");

  • $written = fwrite($handle, "hi php");

  • echo "$written bytes written<br>";

  • fclose($handle);


PHP – File IO - Appending

  • $handle = fopen("test.txt", "a");

  • $written = fwrite($handle, "appending\n");

  • echo "$written bytes written<br>";

  • fclose($handle);


File Open/Close Example

<?php

// open file to read

$toread = fopen(‘some/file.ext’,’r’);

// open (possibly new) file to write

$towrite = fopen(‘some/file.ext’,’w’);

// close both files

fclose($toread);

fclose($towrite);

?>


Now what..?

  • If you open a file to read, you can use more built in PHP functions to read data.

  • If you open the file to write, you can use more built in PHP functions to write data.


Reading Data

  • There are two main functions to read data:

  • fgets($handle,$bytes)

    • Reads up to $bytes of data, stops at newline or end of file (EOF)

  • fread($handle,$bytes)

    • Reads up to $bytes of data, stops at EOF.


Reading Data

  • We need to be aware of the End Of File (EOF) point..

  • feof($handle)

    • Whether the file has reached the EOF point. Returns true if have reached EOF.


Data Reading Example

$handle = fopen('people.txt', 'r');

while (!feof($handle)) {

echo fgets($handle, 1024);

echo '<br />';

}

fclose($handle);


Data Reading Example

$handle = fopen('people.txt', 'r');

while (!feof($handle)) {

echo fgets($handle, 1024);

echo '<br />';

}

fclose($handle);

$handle = fopen('people.txt', 'r');

Open the file and assign the resource to $handle


Data Reading Example

$handle = fopen('people.txt', 'r');

while (!feof($handle)) {

echo fgets($handle, 1024);

echo '<br />';

}

fclose($handle);

while (!feof($handle)) {

echo fgets($handle, 1024);

echo '<br />';

}

While NOT at the end of the file, pointed to by $handle,

get and echo the data line by line


Data Reading Example

$handle = fopen('people.txt', 'r');

while (!feof($handle)) {

echo fgets($handle, 1024);

echo '<br />';

}

fclose($handle);

Close the file

fclose($handle);


File Open shortcuts..

  • There are two ‘shortcut’ functions that don’t require a file to be opened:

  • $lines = file($filename)

    • Reads entire file into an array with each line a separate entry in the array.

  • $str = file_get_contents($filename)

    • Reads entire file into a single string.


Writing Data

  • To write data to a file use:

  • fwrite($handle,$data)

    • Write $data to the file.


Data Writing Example

$handle = fopen('people.txt', 'a');

fwrite($handle, “\nFred:Male”);

fclose($handle);


Data Writing Example

$handle = fopen('people.txt', 'a');

fwrite($handle, '\nFred:Male');

fclose($handle);

Open file to append data (mode 'a')

$handle = fopen('people.txt', 'a');

fwrite($handle, “\nFred:Male”);

Write new data (with line break after previous data)


Other File Operations

  • Delete file

    • unlink('filename');

  • Rename (file or directory)

    • rename('old name', 'new name');

  • Copy file

    • copy('source', 'destination');

  • And many, many more!

    • www.php.net/manual/en/ref.filesystem.php


Dealing With Directories

  • Open a directory

    • $handle = opendir('dirname');

      • $handle 'points' to the directory

  • Read contents of directory

    • readdir($handle)

      • Returns name of next file in directory

      • Files are sorted as on filesystem

  • Close a directory

    • closedir($handle)

      • Closes directory 'stream'


Directory Example

$handle = opendir('./');

while(false !== ($file=readdir($handle)))

{

echo"$file<br />";

}

closedir($handle);


Directory Example

$handle = opendir('./');

while(false !== ($file=readdir($handle)))

{

echo"$file<br />";

}

closedir($handle);

$handle = opendir('./');

Open current directory


Directory Example

$handle = opendir('./');

while(false !== ($file=readdir($handle)))

{

echo"$file<br />";

}

closedir($handle);

while(false !== ($file=readdir($handle)))

{

echo"$file<br />";

}

Whilst readdir() returns a name, loop through directory contents, echoing results


Directory Example

$handle = opendir('./');

while(false !== ($file=readdir($handle)))

{

echo"$file<br />";

}

closedir($handle);

closedir($handle);

Close the directory stream


Other Directory Operations

  • Get current directory

    • getcwd()

  • Change Directory

    • chdir('dirname');

  • Create directory

    • mkdir('dirname');

  • Delete directory (MUST be empty)

    • rmdir('dirname');

  • And more!

    • www.php.net/manual/en/ref.dir.php


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