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A Library Domain Model for People to interact with Stuff in Higher Education Contexts within the global information environment. T. I. L. E. Mark van Harmelen. Paul Bacsich. Ian Chowcat. Phil Nicholls. David Kay. Ken Chad.

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Towards Implementation of Library 2.0 & the e-Framework

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Library Domain


for People

to interact with Stuff

in Higher Education Contexts

within the global information environment





Mark van Harmelen

Paul Bacsich

Ian Chowcat

Phil Nicholls

David Kay

Ken Chad

Towards Implementation of Library 2.0 & the e-Framework

Why do it?

  • Aim

    • [library] service development driven by [library] business goals.

  • Objective

    • A service framework is a tool for documenting a shared view of library services in changing environments; communicating it among libraries and others ...

    • A means of focusing attention and organizing discussion …

    • It does not supply the answers, but facilitates the process by which answers are sought, found, and applied.

  • Scope

    • the range of entities relevant to the articulation of library business goals … as well as the services that support these goals …

    • the framework will not provide an exhaustive description of all aspects of a library, but instead, concentrate on key areas of need. It will not re-invent libraries from the ground up.

      Brian Lavoie, Geneva Henry, Lorcan Dempsey, “A Service Framework for Libraries”, DLIB Magazine, 12 (7/8), July/August 2006

Domain Scope StatementBusiness Goal

The library domain

is about …


interacting with Stuff

in (a variety of) Context(s)


Registry, Finance

Learning &






Storage, Services, Security

Above Business Requirements – Realms?




Domain Ecosystem?

Corporation – organisation involved in ‘back office’ administration of knowledge assets (e.g. originals, copies, licenses, metadata) and / or specific groups of clients (e.g. student records).

Corporations in the library domain include all Universities, some JISC Services, National Libraries and publishers.

Channel – a means of delivering knowledge assets to Clients, not necessarily restricted to the holdings or the client base of any particular Corporation.

Channels within this model range from local OPACs to national and ‘webscale’ services such as Amazon and Google Scholar.

Channel operators typically require their own corporate processes (e.g. a library managing its collection, an online book store managing its stock). However, there may be an increasing tendency towards channels relying on the corporate services of others and vice versa (e.g. a bookshop outsourcing some of its channel services to the Amazon marketplace).

Client - an individual accessing the broader information environment (not just libraries, VLEs and repositories but also the wider web world) in the context of an academically or learning motivated workflows.

Clients in the HE context include students, researchers, lecturers, librarians, business and community partners)

Realms & the Domain Ecosystem


Specialist Content

Assets & Services

e.g. Collections,

Local Records, Rights


Specialist People


e.g. University Course,

LLL Service

People interacting

with Stuff in Context

e.g. HE


Consider … Amazon … Local Resource Discovery …

Network level


Google, …




toolbars, ..




CMS, IR, …


local user


Library web



sharing, …


Consumer environments

Management environment







Resource sharing

Dempsey – October 2007

Process Groups / Realms

Dempsey’s model involves a mesh of ‘management’ and ‘user’ processes, channelled (‘switched’) through the delivery, routing, resolution layer.

The TILE domain model develops this in to 3 distinct process groups (or ‘realms’):

  • Corporate processes

    • Performed by academic, public, commercial organisations

    • What ExLibris has called Source systems?

  • Channel processes

    • Performed by (potentially different) academic, public, commercial organisations

  • Client processes

    • Performed by students, researchers, librarians

    • What ExLibris has called Target systems?

Information – Services – PeopleProf. Fabio Ciravegna (University of Sheffield)

  • People provide information

    • Which forms the basis for services

      • Which provide new information

        • To people and services

          C > B

          B > B

          B > C

This perspective does not assist

in distinguishing between

corporation and channel services

Model Definition Challenges

  • To what extent should the model account for client ‘business requirements’ that fall outside the library / institutional business case? (e.g. Peer networks)

  • Should other HE stuff and services (such as VLE content) be part of the library domain model?

  • Should the ‘actual’ tools of end users (e.g. Social networks) be taken into account alongside their ‘abstract’ business requirements, as shapers of workflows and learnflows?

  • Processes that address real requirements may involve internally and externally delivered activity, both on and off the ‘network’.

Scoping a Domain Model

Business Requirement: : an identifiable segment of the overall mission, at a level that might be detailed in a library’s strategic plan; the apex of a high level domain model

  • Business Process: choices are potentially arbitrary but would most usefully inform a workflow or ‘learnflow’; the lowest level of a domain model

    • Business Function: part of a specification for developing the application, therefore part of an e-Framework SUM

DLF Service Framework (2005)

Dempsey et al proposed a hierarchy consisting of

  • Business Requirement

    • Business Process

      • Business Function

        The report gave an OAIS example

  • Business Requirement: Long Term Preservation

    • Business Process: Ingest

      • Business Function: Receive Submission

        Here is a Library example

  • Business Requirement: Utilisation of Physical Collection

    • Business Process: Manage Circulation

      • Business Function: Validate patron status

        Selecting the starting level is crucial, as illustrated by this lower level variant

  • Business Requirement: Manage Circulation

    • Business Process: Validate patron status

      • Business Function: Banned?

        The DLF Service Framework recommended the higher level model where the business requirements are at a level that might be detailed in a library’s strategic plan

Realm > Requirement > ProcessDecomposition Examples

  • Corporate

    • Build Assets

      • select, acquire

    • Manage Assets

      • ingest, curate, monitor

    • Exploit Assets

      • describe, enhance, expose

    • etc

  • Channel

    • Access

      • register, find, locate, deliver

    • Add Value

      • recognise, advise, contextualise, store

  • Client

    • Consume

      • register, find, access, reference, store

    • Contribute

      • comment, enhance, share




> Requirement

> Manage Assets

>> Process

>> Ingest

>>> Function

>>> Barcode books

It is arguable that, defined in terms of

local library business scope, the library domain

falls largely within the ‘Corporation’ realm.

Consider these options …



1. The Library domain:

Largely relating to

asset management

and exposure

(with the wider exception

of physical assets)?





Narrower / Wider Definitions




1. The Library domain:

Largely relating to

asset management

and exposure

(with the wider exception

of physical assets)?


2. The Library domain:

The processes required

for People to interact

with Stuff in HE Contexts?

Above Business Requirements


Business or Collective




Is collective intelligence

(e.g. attention & behaviour data)

a distinct high level element?

Domain Ecosystem v2

The Library Domain

& wider HE stuff & services

Example – a Recommender service

They fit the model but are they part of the domain?

Example mapping: TILE Pain Point SUMs‘Creating Context’

Example mapping: TILE Pain Point SUMs‘Enabling Contribution’


Making Our Shared Activity Intelligence Count

Working with Dundee, Falmouth, Huddersfield, Lincoln, Sussex, Swansea, Warwick, Wolverhampton

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