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1. Primary Data Collection:
2. Learning ObjectivesSlide 1 of 2 To develop a basic understanding of observation research.
To learn the approaches to observation research.
To understand the advantages and disadvantages of observation research.
To explore the types of human observation.
3. Learning ObjectivesSlide 2 of 2 To describe the types of machine observation and their advantages and disadvantages.
To explore the tremendous impact scanner research has had on the marketing research industry in the past few years.
4. Observation Research Defined
5. Conditions for Using Observation
6. Observational Situations
7. Dimensions Along with Observational Approaches VarySlide 1 of 5 Natural versus Contrived Situations
A natural situation is just that, natural. The observer plays no role in the behavior of interest.
A contrived situation is set up as a simulation by the observer.
8. Dimensions Along with Observational Approaches VarySlide 2 of 5 Open versus Disguised Observation
In an open observation, the person knows that he or she is being observed. It is well known that the presence of an observer may have an influence on the phenomena being observed.
A disguised observation is the process of monitoring people, objects, or occurrences that do not know they are being watched.
9. Dimensions Along With Observational Approaches VarySlide 3 of 5 Structured Verses Unstructured
In the structured observation, the observer fills out a questionnaire-like form on each person observed.
In the totally unstructured observation, the observer simply makes notes on the behavior being observed.
10. Dimensions Along with Observational Approaches VarySlide 4 of 5 Human versus Machine Observers
In some situations it may be possible and even desirable to replace human observers with machines.
In certain situations machines may do the job less expensively, more accurately, or more readily.
11. Dimensions Along with Observational Approaches VarySlide 5 of 5 Direct versus Indirect Observation
Most of the observation done in marketing research is direct observation; that is, directly observing current behavior.
Past behavior can only be observed through indirect observation.
12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Observation ResearchSlide 1 of 2 Advantages
Observation research provides the researcher the opportunity to watch what people actually do rather than relying on reports of what they do.
This approach can avoid much of the biasing factors caused by the interviewer and question structure associated with the survey approach.
13. Advantages and Disadvantages of Observation ResearchSlide 2 of 2 Disadvantages
Only behavior and physical personal characteristics can usually be examined. The researcher does not learn about motives, attitudes, intentions, or feelings.
Observation research can be time consuming and costly if the observed behavior occurs rather infrequently.
14. Human ObservationSlide 1 of 4 Mystery Shoppers
Are used to gather observational data about a store and to collect data about customer/ employee interactions.
One-Way Mirror Observation
The practice of watching unseen from behind a one-way mirror.
15. Human ObservationSlide 2 of 4 Shopper Patterns and Behavior
Shopping patterns are used by retailers to trace the flow of shoppers through a store.
Shopper behavior research involves observing, or perhaps filming and then watching the film, of shoppers or consumers in a variety of shopping settings.
The direct observation and/or films are analyzed to try to understand customer behavioral tendencies.
16. Human ObservationSlide 3 of 4 Content Analysis
Is an observation technique used to analyze written material (usually advertising copy) into meaningful units using carefully applied rules.
A research method in which the researcher is immersed in the system or group under study.
17. Human ObservationSlide 4 of 4 Audits
Audits are another category of human observation research. An audit is examination and verification of the sale of a product.
Audits generally fall into two categories:
Retail audits that measure sales to final customers.
Wholesale audits that determine the amount of product movement from warehouses to retailers.
18. Machine ObservationSlide 1 of 7 Traffic Counters
Machines used to measure vehicular flow over a particular stretch of roadway.
Outdoor advertisers rely on traffic counts to determine the number of exposures per day to a specific billboard.
Retailers use the information to ascertain where to place a particular type of store.
19. Machine ObservationSlide 2 of 7 Physiological Measurement
The electroencephalograph (EEG) is a machine that measures rhythmic fluctuations in the electric potential in the brain.
Researchers claim that EEG measures can be used to assess viewers’ attention to an advertisement at a specific point in time, the intensity of the emotional reactions elicited by specific aspects of the ad, and their comprehension and attention to the ad.
20. Machine ObservationSlide 3 of 7 Physiological Measurement
The galvanic skin response (GSR), also known as the electrodermal response, measures changes in the electric resistance of the skin associated with activation responses.
Marketing research firms use the GSR to evaluate viewers’ interest levels during commercials.
21. Machine ObservationSlide 4 of 7 Physiological Measurement
The pupilometer measures changes in pupil dilation.
The basic assumption is that increased pupil size reflects positive attitudes, interest, and arousal in an advertisement.
Voice Pitch Analysis
Voice pitch analysis examines changes in the relative vibration frequency of the human voice to measure emotion.
22. Machine ObservationSlide 5 of 7 Opinion and Behavior Measurement
The people reader is a machine. The machine looks like a lamp and is designed so that when respondents sit in front of it they are not aware it is simultaneously recording both the reading material and their eyes.
The people reader is used to document information concerning reading habits and the results of different size ads in terms of stopping power and brand-name recall.
23. Machine ObservationSlide 6 of 7 Opinion and Behavior Measurement
RAMS, or Rapid Analysis Measurement System, is a hand-held device with a dial in the center. Respondents turn the dial to the right when they are feeling more favorable toward a subject and vice versa.
24. Machine ObservationSlide 7 of 7 Opinion and Behavior Measurement
The people meter is a microwave computerized rating system that transmits demographic information overnight to measure national t.v. audiences.
The people meter provides information on what t.v. shows are being watched, the number of households watching, and which family members are watching.
25. Scanner Based ResearchSlide 1 of 2 Scanner-Based Research
A single-source system that maintains a 3,000 household panel to record consumer purchases based upon manipulation of the marketing mix.
A scanner-based tracking service for consumer packaged goods.
26. Scanner Based ResearchSlide 2 of 2 Scanner-Based Research (continued)
IRI’s Apollo Space Management software with advanced digitized imaging can produce photo-quality schematics of optimal shelf allocations of products.
Other Important IRI Software Programs Include:
DataServe Analyzer, DataServe Partners, DataServe Targeter, and QuickStart.
27. The Future of Scanning
28. Summary of Key PointsSlide 1 of 3 Observation research is the systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning or communicating with them.
There are five dimensions along which observational approaches vary.
29. Summary of Key PointsSlide 2 of 3 The biggest advantage of observation research is that we can see what people actually do rather than having to rely on what they say they did.
People watching people can take the form of mystery shoppers; one-way mirror observation; shopper patterns and behavior, content analysis; humanistic inquiry; and audits.
30. Summary of Key PointsSlide 3 of 3 Machine observation includes traffic counts, physiological measurement devices, the People Reader, people meters, Rapid Analysis Measurement Systems, and scanners.
In the future, scanners will be able to communicate with personal computers in homes.