2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, 2009
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Food production X Conservation X Climatic change

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Food production x conservation x climatic change

2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, 2009Nairobi, Kenya Agroforestry coffee systems provide adaptation to climate changewhile conserving ecosystem servicesHelton Nonato1, Irene Cardoso2, Flávia Garcia2, Lijbert Brussaard1, Mirjam Pulleman1, Ron de Goede1, Alisson Francisco Xavier2, Elpídio Fernandes-Filho11 Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 2 Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil,


Food production x conservation x climatic change

Introduction and problem description

Food production

X

Conservation

X

Climatic change

FAO (2008); IPCC(2004); Cincotta et al. (2000); Tallis et al. (2008)


Food production x conservation x climatic change

Brazilian coffee production 2008

Introduction and problem description

Coffee requirements:

- Temperature: 18 – 22 oC

- Altitude: 400 - 1400

- Biennial pattern

- Management intensive

- Good soil fertility

Lin (2007); Sediyama et al. (2001); Alegre (1959)


Food production x conservation x climatic change

Current

+ 3 oC

Loss: 69 % of area

3 decades

later

Coffee production in MG and the future scenario

Assad et al. (2004), IPCC (2004); Thomas et al. (2004)


Food production x conservation x climatic change

Original rainforest

Remaining rainforest

Introduction and problem description

SOS Mata Atlântica/INPE (2008); Ribeiro et al. (2009)


Food production x conservation x climatic change

> 83 % fragments < 50 ha

> 60 % are at > 1000 m altitude


Food production x conservation x climatic change

  • Rainforest fragments

  • X

  • Coffee plantation

  • Fight for the same location!


Agroforestry experimentation for soil quality improvement

13 years later: 2006

First step: 1993

  • 39 familiar experiments

  • 7 municipalities

  • > 600 families involved

  • 20 municipalities

Study site

Agroforestry experimentation for soil quality improvement


Objective

Objective

  • To assess and the capacity of agroforestry coffee management as compared to full-sun coffee to provide:

    • Climate change adaptation

    • Biodiversity conservation

    • Ecosystem services

  • To document the regional impact of AF on CC, BC, ES based on scientific data


Food production x conservation x climatic change

Approach

  • Existing data

  • Indicators

  • - Soil

    • - Biodiversity

    • - Environmental data

  • Models already existing

  • GIS

  • Results were averaged

  • across farms

  • Native forest

    Agroforestry

    Sun-coffee


    Food production x conservation x climatic change

    oC

    ResultsClimate Change Adaptation

    Temperature in coffee systems


    Food production x conservation x climatic change

    Deficiency Excess

    ResultsClimate Change Adaptation

    Sequential Hydric balance *

    JAN FEV MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

    F (soil texture, crop type, solar radiation, altitude, evapotranspiration, rainfall and temperature)

    * Rolim, Sentelhas (1998); Thornthwaite, Mather (1995)


    Food production x conservation x climatic change

    Leguminosae

    ResultsBiodiversity conservation

    73 species 70 % native

    62 genera 90 % native


    Food production x conservation x climatic change

    Site

    Tree richness

    % similarity with forest

    AF1

    34

    19

    AF2

    26

    9

    AF3

    21

    14

    AF4

    47

    15

    AF5

    32

    21

    AF6

    30

    10

    AF7

    26

    10

    AF8

    47

    7

    33

    Average

    13

    range

    (21 - 47)

    (7 - 21)

    * average species richness of forest fragments = 62 (range 54 - 68)

    ResultsBiodiversity conservation

    Richness and similarity in tree species composition

    in relation to neighboring forest fragments


    Food production x conservation x climatic change

    ResultsBiodiversity conservation


    Food production x conservation x climatic change

    Soil organic carbon (g.kg-1)

    Depth (cm)

    ResultsCarbon Sequestration


    Soil erosion control

    Results Ecosystem services

    Soil erosion control

    2612

    Kg soil.ha.year-1

    217

    Agroforestry Full-sun coffee

    Franco et al. (2002)


    Profitability

    ResultsEcosystem services

    Profitability

    Indicators(per ha) Conventional Agroforestry

    • Coffee density (# plants) 2,650 2,050

    • Productivity (kg) 2,094 1,271

    • Costs (R$) 2,300 750

    • Net income (R$) 1,887 1,792

    • Cost/benefit (ratio) 0.50.3

      Extra products agroforestry (R$)

    • Papaya - 112

    • Banana - 200

    • Citrus - 110

    • Mango, avocado, guava, jack trees - 135

    • Palm trees, ficus fruit, prune trees - 144

    • Sub-total 0 701

      Total income (R$*/ha) 1,887 2,493

    * Brazilian real (0.39 Euro)


    Discussion and conclusions

    Discussion and conclusions

    • Local experiences have clear benefit for the future of coffee management and production in complex areas

      • Challenge: involvement of local institutions.

  • Coffee agroforestry systems in ZM provide highlights to promote/to encourage agricultural diversification.

    • Challenge: interdisciplinary integration and long term research, monitoring.

  • Future challenge: adaptation and scaling up


  • Food production x conservation x climatic change

    Thank you for your attention.

    [email protected]

    Pictures#:CTA/ZM, Helton Nonato, Irene M. Cardoso, Cyro José, Projeto Doces Matas


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