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slide1

2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, 2009Nairobi, Kenya Agroforestry coffee systems provide adaptation to climate changewhile conserving ecosystem servicesHelton Nonato1, Irene Cardoso2, Flávia Garcia2, Lijbert Brussaard1, Mirjam Pulleman1, Ron de Goede1, Alisson Francisco Xavier2, Elpídio Fernandes-Filho11 Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 2 Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil,

slide2

Introduction and problem description

Food production

X

Conservation

X

Climatic change

FAO (2008); IPCC(2004); Cincotta et al. (2000); Tallis et al. (2008)

slide3

Brazilian coffee production 2008

Introduction and problem description

Coffee requirements:

- Temperature: 18 – 22 oC

- Altitude: 400 - 1400

- Biennial pattern

- Management intensive

- Good soil fertility

Lin (2007); Sediyama et al. (2001); Alegre (1959)

slide4

Current

+ 3 oC

Loss: 69 % of area

3 decades

later

Coffee production in MG and the future scenario

Assad et al. (2004), IPCC (2004); Thomas et al. (2004)

slide5

Original rainforest

Remaining rainforest

Introduction and problem description

SOS Mata Atlântica/INPE (2008); Ribeiro et al. (2009)

slide6

> 83 % fragments < 50 ha

> 60 % are at > 1000 m altitude

slide7

Rainforest fragments

  • X
  • Coffee plantation
  • Fight for the same location!
agroforestry experimentation for soil quality improvement

13 years later: 2006

First step: 1993

  • 39 familiar experiments
  • 7 municipalities
  • > 600 families involved
  • 20 municipalities

Study site

Agroforestry experimentation for soil quality improvement
objective
Objective
  • To assess and the capacity of agroforestry coffee management as compared to full-sun coffee to provide:
    • Climate change adaptation
    • Biodiversity conservation
    • Ecosystem services
  • To document the regional impact of AF on CC, BC, ES based on scientific data
slide10

Approach

  • Existing data
  • Indicators
  • - Soil
      • - Biodiversity
      • - Environmental data
  • Models already existing
  • GIS
  • Results were averaged
  • across farms

Native forest

Agroforestry

Sun-coffee

slide11

oC

Results Climate Change Adaptation

Temperature in coffee systems

slide12

Deficiency Excess

Results Climate Change Adaptation

Sequential Hydric balance *

JAN FEV MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

F (soil texture, crop type, solar radiation, altitude, evapotranspiration, rainfall and temperature)

* Rolim, Sentelhas (1998); Thornthwaite, Mather (1995)

slide13

Leguminosae

Results Biodiversity conservation

73 species 70 % native

62 genera 90 % native

slide14

Site

Tree richness

% similarity with forest

AF1

34

19

AF2

26

9

AF3

21

14

AF4

47

15

AF5

32

21

AF6

30

10

AF7

26

10

AF8

47

7

33

Average

13

range

(21 - 47)

(7 - 21)

* average species richness of forest fragments = 62 (range 54 - 68)

Results Biodiversity conservation

Richness and similarity in tree species composition

in relation to neighboring forest fragments

slide16

Soil organic carbon (g.kg-1)

Depth (cm)

Results Carbon Sequestration

soil erosion control

Results Ecosystem services

Soil erosion control

2612

Kg soil.ha.year-1

217

Agroforestry Full-sun coffee

Franco et al. (2002)

profitability

Results Ecosystem services

Profitability

Indicators(per ha) Conventional Agroforestry

  • Coffee density (# plants) 2,650 2,050
  • Productivity (kg) 2,094 1,271
  • Costs (R$) 2,300 750
  • Net income (R$) 1,887 1,792
  • Cost/benefit (ratio) 0.50.3

Extra products agroforestry (R$)

  • Papaya - 112
  • Banana - 200
  • Citrus - 110
  • Mango, avocado, guava, jack trees - 135
  • Palm trees, ficus fruit, prune trees - 144
  • Sub-total 0 701

Total income (R$*/ha) 1,887 2,493

* Brazilian real (0.39 Euro)

discussion and conclusions
Discussion and conclusions
  • Local experiences have clear benefit for the future of coffee management and production in complex areas
      • Challenge: involvement of local institutions.
  • Coffee agroforestry systems in ZM provide highlights to promote/to encourage agricultural diversification.
      • Challenge: interdisciplinary integration and long term research, monitoring.
  • Future challenge: adaptation and scaling up
slide20

Thank you for your attention.

helton.desouza@wur.nl

Pictures#:CTA/ZM, Helton Nonato, Irene M. Cardoso, Cyro José, Projeto Doces Matas

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