How important is the local when thinking global internationalisation at a research led university
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How important is the local when thinking global? Internationalisation at a research led university. Ian Willis Research Seminar 28 October 2009. ‘Local’ - key emergent theme. Journey Local was NOT starting place

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How important is the local when thinking global internationalisation at a research led university

How important is the local when thinking global? Internationalisation at a research led university

Ian Willis

Research Seminar

28 October 2009


Local key emergent theme

‘Local’ - key emergent theme

  • Journey

    • Local was NOT starting place

    • 2nd beginning was on rationales, drivers and restrainers for internationalisation

  • University is NW & research led!

    • Confidential

    • Major changes underway

  • Internationalisation & globalisation: brief

  • Theoretical focus

  • Local considerations

    • emerged as a strong theme in analysis


Inter connected inter acting nested

Inter-connected Inter-actingNested

  • Global

  • International

  • (Europe)

  • National

  • University

  • (Departmental)

  • Individual

Levels

All underpinned by ICT


Globalisation what on earth is it

Globalisation – what on earth is it?

Globalisation in terms of:

  • Ethnicity

  • Ideas

  • Media

  • Finance

  • Technology

    Key notions:

    Flows

    Global events induce local responses

Appadurai 1996


Global

Global

The existence of global economic, political, cultural and environmental interconnections and flows that make many of the existing borders and boundaries irrelevant

Steger 2003

Note:

Complex

Inter-relations, flows, dynamic

Beyond states

Economic dimension inescapable but much more going on

BUT: states remain very powerful including in education


Globalisation and internationalisation

Globalisation and internationalisation

Related and interconnected but not the same

Internationalisation is one of the responses that HEIs are making through their strategies, policies and activities (UNESCO 2004, Altbach & Knight 2007)

Responses will be local, situated and prescribed by the realities of individual HEIs


Internationalisation

Internationalisation

The process of integrating an international, intercultural and/or global dimension into the goals, functions (teaching/learning, research, services) and delivery of higher education

(Knight 2005)

This is very commonly cited

  • Note: integration


Rationales why bother

Rationales – why bother?


Question is it a

Question: Is it a......

  • Theoretical framework

  • Conceptual framework

  • Organising framework

  • Plain old framework


Organising the level complexity

Organising the level & complexity

  • Lewin’s Force field analysis

    • Driving and restraining forces for change

  • Social Practice Theory: Trowler

    • ‘Situates’ change

  • Transformative globalisation

    • Emphasises local responses to global flows/forces


How important is the local when thinking global internationalisation at a research led university 1373950

Forces potentially acting to restrain internationalisation

Global

Rejection of globalisation discourse, credit crunch

Institutional

Conflicting university agendas and priorities

Existing positions and interests

Individual

Locally based research, commitment to local concerns

Questioning of globalisation discourse & marketisation

Views on ‘purpose’ of university

Existing positions and interests


How important is the local when thinking global internationalisation at a research led university 1373950

Forces: potential to drive internationalisation

Global

Neo-liberal economics, trade agreements

New markets, competition, demand

Global research, Global challenges

ICT, English worldwide, staff & student mobility

National policies

Economic view of internationalisation

Relative reduction in funding

­


How important is the local when thinking global internationalisation at a research led university 1373950

More Forces: potential to drive

Institutional

Economic pressure, competition

‘Global University’, Reputation (research led)

International league tables

Existing traditions & international collaborations

Educational drive for international dimension

Individual

International research interests

Acceptance of market discourse

Existing positions and interests


Glonacal agency heuristic

‘Glonacal-agency’ heuristic

  • Global - National – Local

    • All important

  • Agency: looking at how individuals act/influence at all levels

  • ‘Layers and conditions’

    • Changes mediated by local histories and aimsMarginson & Rhoades


Structure agency

Structure/Agency

  • Argued that each level creates a structure within which level below acts agentially

  • Global forces create context that calls for a university response

    • Often meaning internationalisation

  • University’s internationalisation creates context: individual response

    These responses can in turn influence ‘up’


Structure agency1

Structure/Agency

  • Provides an explanation of how individual interests (projects) are the locus of concern/action

  • Shows agential action can shape structures

    • Over time

  • Theoretical argument

    • Why to engage with individual interests

    • Supported in the findings


University individual

University / Individual

  • University linking internationalisation aims to individual ‘projects’ can be a key to successful development

  • Doing it just for the money won’t work

  • Need for a nuanced message

  • Monash require any internationalisation activity to explicitly serve an academic function


Back to the framework

Back to the Framework

What is it.........?

Theoretical, Conceptual

Organising or Plain old?

Ask the audience!

  • Does it work OK?

  • Questions/comments

  • Thank you


Bonus slides follow

Bonus slides follow


How new is it

How new is it ?

Debated – here’s one view

Four major cycles:

  • 1492 - Spain and Portugal colonise S America etc. World (oceanic) trade established

  • Late 17th Cent – 2nd European colonisation, slave trade, trade gives over to conquest

  • Late 19th Cent – huge increase in trade, mass migration to Americas. Last colonies fought for. Ends with 1930s depression

  • Post WW2 – trade liberalisation, intensifies 1967 – 1980s

  • Initial gains unequally distributed, but eventually trickle down (?)

  • Greater gains overall to those that globalised. Often caused great suffering

  • ‘Elites’ have more in common with elites in other countries than with own people


National messages pressures

National messages & pressures

  • HE as a business is very important to UK economy

    • Income: ~ £17bn, Economic impact: £42.5bn,

    • 1.2% of workforce: 330,000 direct (600,000 total impact)

  • Most UK national messages are economic

  • Knowledge economy is accepted

  • Most governments want mass education and spending contained

    • These are real pressures for HEIs

    • Leads to mix of public/private income

    • 61% public, 27% private, 12% ‘export’

Figures from Universities UK for 2003-4


Globalisation contested different views different assumptions

Globalisation:ContestedDifferent viewsDifferent assumptions

Hyperglobalist:

Triumph of global capitalism

Demise of nation state

Sceptical:

Just regionalism

Polarisation: developed and developing

Nation state now more important in managing crisis in capitalism

Education is national

Transformational:

Interconnectedness; both integration and fragmentation.

Some enmeshed in global order others marginalised

Relationships cross national boundaries

Nations retain power but transformed by ideas of international governance and law

3 broad approaches - each contains plurality of views


Globalisation summary notes

Globalisation – summary notes

Flows, Intensity, Speed

Homogenisation & localisation

Economics (neo-liberal) as major driver

Knowledge Economy, Competition, GATs

Education: a product and part of globalising process

WW educational (credentialing) system, English, Staff & Student mobility

Global challenges

Global research collaboration

All underpinned by ICT


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