Chapter 10 BIODIVERSITY. What is biodiversity?. Bio = Diversity = V a r i e t y BIODIVERSITY is short for… BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY . Life. Some areas contain an extraordinary variety of species (more biodiversity)… Tropical rain forests Islands Coral reefs Coastal areas.
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Diversity = Variety
BIODIVERSITY is short for… BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
Some areas contain an extraordinary variety of species (more biodiversity)…
aerial view of Fiji Islands and coral reefs
1.6 million – “known” species
most of which are INSECTS
species is “known”?
when it is collected
and described scientifically
(given a scientific name)
Levels of Biodiversity
refers to….the number of different species in an area
Indian Spectacled Monkey
refers to… the variety of habitats and
communities and within ecosystems
Namib Desert, Africa
Coral Reef, Tropical Ocean
refers to…. all the genes contained within the members of a population
Gene - a segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait
The greater the
the species !!!
The word BIODIVERSITY most often refers to….
Biodiveristy can affect…..
1. the stability of ecosystems
2. the sustainability of populations
species that are so important to the functioning of an ecosystem that if they disappear the ecosystem changes dramatically
Island Nation of Tuvalu – chain of small islands in South Pacific
Global Warming is threatening ……
1970’s – estimated 20 panthers
2011 – estimated 100-160 panthers
these 100-160 panthers have limited genetic diversity – having come from an original group of 20
FLORIDA PANTHER http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qznv5I21MSA
AMUR LEOPARD - http://www.arkive.org/amur-leopard/panthera-pardus-orientalis/video-or00.html
Reasons for the decline …
CHEETAH - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tz1rGmY2c_s
developed by combining genetic material
from more than one population
Cruise Ship in
EXTINCTION…. when all members of a species die
MASS EXTINCTION…. the extinction of many species in a relatively short period of time
Some scientists warn that we are in the midst of another mass extinction.
Some scientists estimate that as many as 20,000 extinctions are occurring each year.
The rate of extinction has increased by a multiple of
50 since the 1800s.
It is believed that between
1800 and 2100 (300 years)
25% of all species on Earth
may become extinct.
Dodo Bird – extinct 1690’s
Why did the Dodo become extinct?
it was flightless,
had no fear of man,
was hunted for food
How will the current mass extinction be different from those in the past?
HUMANS are the primary cause
Cockroaches and rats are not likely to become extinct. Why?
Species with small populations in limited areas can easily become extinct. Why?
Ivory Billed Woodpecker
Endangered species - is likely to become extinct if protective measures are not taken immediately
Threatened species – has a declining population and is likely to become endangered if it is not protected
In 1967 - the Bald Eagle placed on
Endangered Species List
In 2007 - removed from the list
Habitat Destruction – to demolish or destroy
Habitat Fragmentation – to break into pieces
Habitat Degradation– to deteriorate
species that are not native/endemic to an area
EXOTICS threaten native species..…
also known as…..
alien, foreign, invasive,
Exotic Pet Trade …
trade involving any animal that is not native to an area
the state of Florida is experiencing problems with many exotics – Iguanas, Burmese Pythons, Ferrel Hogs, Monitor Lizards and Gambian Pouch Rats
the unlawful hunting, fishing, harvesting or trade of wildlife
Rhino are killed for their horn which is used in traditional
Chinese medicine and in handles in expensive daggers
any contamination of air, water or soil
What types of pollution are making their way into food webs? pesticides, cleaning agents, drugs, other chemicals
How do these get into the environment?
POLLUTION …. was responsible for the decline of the Bald Eagle
The pesticide DDT was widely used in the US in the 1940’s - 60’s. DDT got into the food chain. It affected the eggs - making the shells thin and weak. Often the eggs cracked before the young were born.
Global Climate Change…
What is it?
How would this
an increase in the number of individuals in an area
currently 7 billion humans
increasing…. at a rate of about 222,000 people/day
the increasing consumption of natural resources
A prolonged pattern of overconsumption
leads to ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION.
the increasing consumption of natural resources
How many cell phones have you owned?
Why did you replace the last one?
Did you NEED a new cell phone?
H - habitat loss
I - introduced species
P - population growth
P – pollution
O - over-consumption
Birds of Paradise
ENDEMIC SPECIES – species that are native to and
found only within a limited area
Why are species disappearing?
land is cleared for farming, cattle, roads… …
Islands often have distinct species – different from anywhere else
Galapagos Islands – have unique species - marine iguanas, 13 finches, tortoise, flightless cormorant
What is threatening island species? exotics + development
BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS –
are the most threatened areas having high species diversity
25 areas have been identified – map on page 268
including Madagascar, New Zealand, Caribbean, Phillppines, …
Madagascar has 33 species of lemur
- lemurs are found nowhere else
Captive Breeding - the breeding of species in captivity with the
hope of reintroducing them to their natural habitat
into 8 western states
BLACK FOOTED FERRET
Survival of this animal is still in peril.
GERM PLASM(A) – any form of genetic material contained within the reproductive, or germ cells of an organism
GERM PLASM BANK – stores germ plasm(a) for future use and research or species-recovery efforts
WHAT CAN BE STORED? – seeds, sperm, DNA, eggs, embryos, tissue samples,…
(within the Arctic Circle)
from future catastrophes.
Original Idea –
to put exotic animals and plants on display
Why important today -
Problems with Captive Species – may not reproduce, small populations are vulnerable to disease and genetic disorders caused by inbreeding
The most effective way to save species….
is to protect their habitat.
Why is it important to protect entire ecosystems rather than individual species?
1. To compile a list of all endangered and threatened species in the US
2. To protect from human harm. No part of an endangered or threatened species can be hurt, sold or traded.
3. The federal government cannot carry out any project that jeopardizes threatened or endangered species.
4. To prepare a species recovery plan
HABITAT CONSERVATION PLAN - attempts to protect species across large areas of land.
ICUN RED LIST
Biodiversity Treaty – international agreement to preserve biodiversity
WWF (World Wildlife Fund) – encourages the sustainable use of resources and supports wildlife protection
Conservation International –
helps identify biodiversity hotspots
develop ecosystem conservation projects
Greenpeace International – uses non-violent confrontation to raise the level of awareness of environmental threats and raises the quality of public debate.