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Chapter 10 BIODIVERSITY. What is biodiversity?. Bio = Diversity = V a r i e t y BIODIVERSITY is short for… BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY . Life. Some areas contain an extraordinary variety of species (more biodiversity)… Tropical rain forests Islands Coral reefs Coastal areas.

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Chapter 10 biodiversity

Chapter 10


What is biodiversity

What is biodiversity?

Bio =

Diversity = Variety



Chapter 10 biodiversity

Some areas contain an extraordinary variety of species (more biodiversity)…

  • Tropical rain forests

  • Islands

  • Coral reefs

  • Coastal areas

aerial view of Fiji Islands and coral reefs

Chapter 10 biodiversity

1.6 million – “known” species

on Earth

most of which are INSECTS

Chapter 10 biodiversity

What determines

whether a

species is “known”?

when it is collected

and described scientifically

(given a scientific name)

Where do unknown species exist

Where do unknown species exist?

  • remote wildernesses

  • deep in the oceans – hydrothermal vents

  • cities…

One of a kind find patch nosed salamander

One-of-a-Kind Find… Patch-nosed Salamander

  • 2007 - Bill Peterman found a small salamander

  • 2” in length

  • found in Stephens County, Georgia

  • smallest salamander species ever found in US

  • 2009 - identified as a new species

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Levels of Biodiversity

  • Species Diversity

  • Ecosystem Diversity

  • Genetic Diversity

Species diversity

Species Diversity

refers to….the number of different species in an area

Velvet Worm


Indian Spectacled Monkey

Ecosystem diversity

Ecosystem Diversity

refers to… the variety of habitats and

communities and within ecosystems

Namib Desert, Africa

Coral Reef, Tropical Ocean

Genetic diversity

Genetic Diversity

refers to…. all the genes contained within the members of a population

Gene - a segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait

The greater the

genetic diversity

the healthier

the species !!!

Chapter 10 biodiversity

The word BIODIVERSITY most often refers to….

Species Biodiversity

Benefits of biodiversity

Benefits of Biodiversity

Biodiveristy can affect…..

1. the stability of ecosystems

2. the sustainability of populations

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Keystone Species….

species that are so important to the functioning of an ecosystem that if they disappear the ecosystem changes dramatically

California sea otter

California Sea Otter

  • In 1800’s - hunted for their fur

  • By 1900’s - population was decimated and close to extinction

  • with the near extinction of the sea otter, sea urchins multiplied and ate the kelp, altering the ecosystem and affecting many species of fish and invertebrates

Small isolated populations are less likely to survive environmental changes

Small, Isolated Populations are Less Likely to Survive Environmental Changes

Island Nation of Tuvalu – chain of small islands in South Pacific

  • Average height above sea level - 6 feet

  • Highest point above sea level - 15 feet

    Global Warming is threatening ……

  • 1 native species of endodontid snail

  • 4 native species of charopid snail

  • 1 native species of reptile

Genetic diversity within a population is critical to species survival

Genetic Diversity within a population is critical to species survival ….

Genetic diversity florida panther

Genetic Diversity - Florida Panther

1970’s – estimated 20 panthers

2011 – estimated 100-160 panthers

these 100-160 panthers have limited genetic diversity – having come from an original group of 20


Genetic diversity amur leopard

Genetic Diversity - Amur Leopard


  • amongst the rarest animals in the world – native to Russia

  • only 30 to 40 individuals surviving

  • this species may already be doomed - despite any conservation efforts


Genetic diversity cheetah

Genetic Diversity – Cheetah


  • Early 1900’s - estimated 100,000 in Africa + Asia

  • Today – estimated 7,600 in Africa + Asia

    Reasons for the decline …

  • habitat loss

  • loss of prey

  • competition with other predators

  • conflict with man

  • does not do well in parks or in captive breeding


Cheetah s range

Cheetah’s Range

Chapter 10 biodiversity


  • medicine, food, clothing, building + industrial materials …

  • purifies water, recycles nutrients, makes the soil fertile…

  • camping, pets, photography, wildlife, ecotourism

Foods from the

Foods from the….



  • most new crop varieties are hybrids….

    developed by combining genetic material

    from more than one population

  • Grapefruit

  • Mandarin orange

  • Tangelo

  • Loganberry

  • Rutabaga



  • A form of tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areas

Cruise Ship in


Section 2 biodiversity at risk

Section 2 – Biodiversity at Risk

EXTINCTION…. when all members of a species die

MASS EXTINCTION…. the extinction of many species in a relatively short period of time

Some scientists warn that we are in the midst of another mass extinction.

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Some scientists estimate that as many as 20,000 extinctions are occurring each year.

The rate of extinction has increased by a multiple of

50 since the 1800s.

It is believed that between

1800 and 2100 (300 years)

25% of all species on Earth

may become extinct.

Dodo Bird – extinct 1690’s

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Why did the Dodo become extinct?

it was flightless,

had no fear of man,


was hunted for food

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How will the current mass extinction be different from those in the past?

HUMANS are the primary cause

Cockroaches and rats are not likely to become extinct. Why?

Species with small populations in limited areas can easily become extinct. Why?

Ivory Billed Woodpecker

extinct 1960’s

Other factors that put species at risk

Other factors that put species at risk….

  • species that migrate

  • species that need large habitats

  • species that need special habitats

  • species that are exploited by humans

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Endangered species - is likely to become extinct if protective measures are not taken immediately

Threatened species – has a declining population and is likely to become endangered if it is not protected

In 1967 - the Bald Eagle placed on

Endangered Species List

In 2007 - removed from the list

because populations

recovered sufficiently

How do humans cause extinctions

How do humans cause extinctions?

  • habitat destruction…

  • habitat fragmentation….

  • habitat degradation….

  • invasive/exotic species….

  • harvesting, hunting and poaching….

  • pollution….

What are the causes of species loss extinction

What are the causes of species loss (extinction)…

  • Habitat Loss

  • Exotic Species

  • Exotic Pet Trade

  • Poaching

  • Pollution

  • Global Climate Change

  • Population Growth

  • Over Consumption

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Habitat loss…including…

Habitat Destruction – to demolish or destroy

Habitat Fragmentation – to break into pieces

Habitat Degradation– to deteriorate

Exotic species

Exotic Species….

species that are not native/endemic to an area

EXOTICS threaten native species..…

  • by competing with them

  • native species have no natural defenses against the exotics

    also known as…..

    alien, foreign, invasive,

    introduced species

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Exotic Pet Trade …

trade involving any animal that is not native to an area

the state of Florida is experiencing problems with many exotics – Iguanas, Burmese Pythons, Ferrel Hogs, Monitor Lizards and Gambian Pouch Rats

Why are species harvested and sold

Why are species harvested and sold?

  • pets – python, parakeets, lizards,….

  • houseplants – orchid, bromeliad, pothos,…

  • wood/building materials – teak, bamboo, cedar,…

  • food – shark fin soup, mangoes, coconut,…

  • herbal medicine – rhino horn, bear gall bladder,….

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Poaching …

the unlawful hunting, fishing, harvesting or trade of wildlife

Rhino are killed for their horn which is used in traditional

Chinese medicine and in handles in expensive daggers

Black Rhino



any contamination of air, water or soil

What types of pollution are making their way into food webs? pesticides, cleaning agents, drugs, other chemicals

How do these get into the environment?

Chapter 10 biodiversity

POLLUTION …. was responsible for the decline of the Bald Eagle

The pesticide DDT was widely used in the US in the 1940’s - 60’s. DDT got into the food chain. It affected the eggs - making the shells thin and weak. Often the eggs cracked before the young were born.

Additional threats to biodiversity

Additional Threats to Biodiversity

Global Climate Change…

What is it?

How would this

impact species?

Population growth

Population Growth….

an increase in the number of individuals in an area

currently 7 billion humans

increasing…. at a rate of about 222,000 people/day

Over consumption

Over Consumption…

the increasing consumption of natural resources

A prolonged pattern of overconsumption


Over consumption1

Over Consumption…

the increasing consumption of natural resources

How many cell phones have you owned?

Why did you replace the last one?

Did you NEED a new cell phone?

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Over Consumption….


  • approximately 24 % of the world’s population

  • consume about 75% of the world’s resources

  • affluent, industrialized nations consume a disproportionate amount of the Earth’s natural resources

The hippo dilemma the 5 main threats to biodiversity

the HIPPO dilemma(The 5 Main Threats To Biodiversity)

H - habitat loss

I - introduced species

P - population growth

P – pollution

O - over-consumption

Chapter 10 biodiversity

New Guinea

Birds of Paradise

39 species

ENDEMIC SPECIES – species that are native to and

found only within a limited area

Area critical biodiversity 1 tropical rainforests

Area Critical Biodiversity – 1. Tropical Rainforests

  • cover less than 7% of the Earth’s land surface

  • contain over 50% of the world’s species

    Why are species disappearing?

    land is cleared for farming, cattle, roads… …

Area critical biodiversity 2 coral reefs

Area Critical Biodiversity – 2. Coral Reefs

  • Functions of coral reefs – food, tourism, protect coasts from waves, source of chemicals

  • nearly 60% of coral reefs are threatened by human activities – overfishing and pollution

Area of critical biodiversity 3 coastal ecosystems

Area of Critical Biodiversity – 3. Coastal Ecosystems

  • include swamps, marshes, shores and kelp beds

  • serve as ….travel routes for many migrating species and link to land ecosystems

Area of critical biodiversity 4 islands

Area of Critical Biodiversity – 4. Islands

Islands often have distinct species – different from anywhere else

Galapagos Islands – have unique species - marine iguanas, 13 finches, tortoise, flightless cormorant

What is threatening island species? exotics + development

Chapter 10 biodiversity


are the most threatened areas having high species diversity

25 areas have been identified – map on page 268

including Madagascar, New Zealand, Caribbean, Phillppines, …

Madagascar has 33 species of lemur

- lemurs are found nowhere else

Section 3 the future of biodiversity

Section 3 – The Future of Biodiversity

Captive Breeding - the breeding of species in captivity with the

hope of reintroducing them to their natural habitat

Black footed ferret


  • declared extinct in 1979

  • Small population found in 1981

  • captive breeding has resulted in reintroduction

    into 8 western states

  • now over 1,000 mature, wild-born individuals


California condor


  • habitat loss, poaching and lead poisoning brought this species near extinction

  • 1986 – remaining 9 wild Condors were captured

  • began captive breeding program

  • 2005 - 121 condors in the wild

    Survival of this animal is still in peril.


Chapter 10 biodiversity

GERM PLASM(A) – any form of genetic material contained within the reproductive, or germ cells of an organism

GERM PLASM BANK – stores germ plasm(a) for future use and research or species-recovery efforts

WHAT CAN BE STORED? – seeds, sperm, DNA, eggs, embryos, tissue samples,…

Doomsday vault


  • located on the Svalbard Islands, Norway

    (within the Arctic Circle)

  • the vault aims to safeguard the world’s agriculture

    from future catastrophes.

Zoos aquariums botanical gardens

Zoos, Aquariums, Botanical Gardens

Original Idea –

to put exotic animals and plants on display

Why important today -

  • in some cases, these facilities now house the few remaining members of a species and are perhaps the species’ last hope for survival –

  • living museums of the world’s biodiverisity

    Problems with Captive Species – may not reproduce, small populations are vulnerable to disease and genetic disorders caused by inbreeding

Chapter 10 biodiversity

The most effective way to save species….

is to protect their habitat.

Why is it important to protect entire ecosystems rather than individual species?

  • able to save more species

  • species must have a place to live

Endangered species act passed 1973 4 main provisions

Endangered Species Act – passed 19734 main provisions

1. To compile a list of all endangered and threatened species in the US

2. To protect from human harm. No part of an endangered or threatened species can be hurt, sold or traded.

3. The federal government cannot carry out any project that jeopardizes threatened or endangered species.

4. To prepare a species recovery plan

Chapter 10 biodiversity

HABITAT CONSERVATION PLAN - attempts to protect species across large areas of land.

Chapter 10 biodiversity


  • published by International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

  • list of species in danger of extinction around the world

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Biodiversity Treaty – international agreement to preserve biodiversity

Chapter 10 biodiversity

WWF (World Wildlife Fund) – encourages the sustainable use of resources and supports wildlife protection

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Conservation International –

helps identify biodiversity hotspots


develop ecosystem conservation projects

Chapter 10 biodiversity

Greenpeace International – uses non-violent confrontation to raise the level of awareness of environmental threats and raises the quality of public debate.

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