ESC 102 Historical Geology Fall 2010. Spheres of the Earth. When we view the Earth from space what Earth systems are observable? What is most obvious? Are these systems independent or do they interact with one another ?. Spheres of the Earth. Lithosphere:Earth’s solid rocky mass
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This map took many years to complete and helped establish the geologic time scale.
above absolute zero is observed in space(-273o C or -460o F)
--Afterglow of the Big Bang
Galaxies moving away – expanding universe
Determine the Age of the Universe
--very dense matter came into existence
--The four basic forces separated:
gravity, electromagnetic force, strong and weak nuclear forces
--Enormous expansion occurred
Solar nebula theory
The planets formed with distinctorbits around the sun.Some planets have satellites which orbit individual planets.
Small in size.
Composed of rock.
Large in size.
Composed of hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane
Small rocky cores
Pluto: no longer has planet status
The earth and moon were heavily bombarded in Earth’s early history.
Most of the lunar material
came from the mantle of the colliding planetesimal
The material cooled and
crystallized into lunar layers
Moon is smaller than Earth and cooled quickly.Light colored surface areas are lunar
Highlands – heavily cratered.
Evidence of massive meteorite
Mare are areas of lava flows, more likely due to impact than tectonics
After decades of puzzling evidence, the theory was developed in the1960s
Mechanism: Plate tectonics is driven by convection in the mantle
and in turn drives mountain building
and associated igneous and metamorphic activity