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Brief Overview of Residue Number System (RNS)

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Brief Overview ofResidue Number System (RNS)

VLSI Signal Processing

台灣大學電機系

吳安宇

- History
- Why RNS is needed ?
- Fundamental concepts in RNS.
- Conversion between Decimal and Residue.
- Conventional complex RNS
- Difficult arithmetic operations
- Applications

- The ancient study of the residue numbering system begins with a verse from a third-centry book, Suan-Ching, by Sun Tzu.

We have things of which we do not know the number,

If we count them by three, the remainder is 2,

If we count them by fives, the remainder is 3,

If we count them by sevens, the remainder is 2,

How many things are there?

- We commemorate this contribution as the Chinese Remainder Theorem, or CRT.

This theorem, as well as RNS, was set forth in the 19th by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his celebrated Disquisitiones Arithmetical.

- It is a “carry-free” system that performs addition, substraction, and multiplication as parallel operations.

FA

FA

FA

FA

HA

- The RNS is defined in terms of a set of relatively prime moduli.
- If P denotes the moduli set, then

The dynamic range M is

- Any integer in the residue class ZM has a unique L-tuple representation given by

where Xi=(X mod pi) and is called the ith residue.

X

→

X1

X2

X

→

X1

X2

X

→

X1

X2

0

→

0

0

5

→

2

0

10

→

1

0

1

→

1

1

6

→

0

1

11

→

2

1

2

→

2

2

7

→

1

2

12

→

0

2

3

→

0

3

8

→

2

3

13

→

1

3

4

→

1

4

9

→

0

4

14

→

2

4

X

X

X

X

X

→

→

→

→

→

X1

X1

X1

X1

X1

X2

X2

X2

X2

X2

X3

X3

X3

X3

X3

12

24

0

48

36

→

→

→

→

→

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

4

0

1

3

13

49

25

37

1

→

→

→

→

→

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

0

1

2

4

26

50

2

38

14

→

→

→

→

→

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

1

0

2

3

39

27

3

15

51

→

→

→

→

→

0

0

0

0

0

3

3

3

3

3

4

1

2

0

3

40

52

4

28

16

→

→

→

→

→

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

3

4

2

1

0

17

41

53

5

29

→

→

→

→

→

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

4

3

2

6

54

42

30

18

→

→

→

→

→

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

2

2

4

2

1

3

0

19

7

55

31

43

→

→

→

→

→

1

1

1

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

4

0

3

2

1

44

32

56

8

20

→

→

→

→

→

2

2

2

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

3

4

21

33

45

57

9

→

→

→

→

→

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

0

2

4

10

46

58

22

34

→

→

→

→

→

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

1

0

4

35

59

47

11

23

→

→

→

→

→

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

0

4

2

3

1

X

→

X1

X2

X

→

X1

X2

X

→

X1

X2

-6

→

0

2

-2

→

1

2

2

→

2

2

-5

→

1

3

-1

→

2

3

3

→

0

3

-4

→

2

0

0

→

0

0

4

→

1

0

-3

→

0

1

1

→

1

1

5

→

2

1

- For signed RNS, any integer in (-M/2, M/2], has a unique RNS L-tuple representation where xi=(X mod pi) if X>0, and (M-|X|) mod pi otherwise.

7(1, 3, 2 )

7(1, 3, 2 )

7(1, 3, 2 )

+3(0, 3, 3 )

- 3(0, 3, 3 )

*3(0, 3, 3 )

10(1 mod 3, 6 mod 4, 5 mod 5) = (1,2,0)

4(1 mod 3, 0 mod 4, -1 mod 5) = (1,0,4)

21(0 mod 3, 9 mod 4, 6 mod 5) = (0,1,1)

- Efficient and rapid implementation of the operation (Xi o Yi) mod pi must be found.

Only for the case where pi=2n can be easily implemented in conventional system.

Xi (n bits)

RAM or ROM

Table Lookup

Zi = (Xi o Yi) mod pi

Zi (n bits)

Yi (n bits)

- To be competitive system, the speed of data acquisition and the accompanying decimal-to-residue conversion must be equally fast.

pi-(25mod pi)

2j mod pi

j=4

j=3

j=2

j=1

j=0

i=1

3

i=1

1

3

4

2

1

i=2

3

i=2

2

1

4

2

1

- Generally speaking, the speed limitation of residue-to-decimal conversion is a problem in residue number system.
- The R/D problem can be solved in one of the following two ways:
- Mixed radix conversion (MRC)
- Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT)

Pi=5

g

0

1

2

3

4

gi-1

1

3

2

4

Pi=6

g

0

1

2

3

4

5

Example:

gi-1

1

5

Pi=7

g

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

gi-1

1

4

5

2

3

6

- The multiplicative inverse of g of modulo pi is denoted as gi-1 and satisfies

RNS

- The MRC representation is given by

MRC

where v1=1, v2=p1, v3=p1p2, v4=p1p2p3, …

- Use nesting subtractions and multiplicative inverse to make sequential conversion.

Block Diagram of MRC

p12-1

M

p13-1

M

p23-1

M

p1L-1

M

p2L-1

M

pL-1,L-1

M

Chinese Remainder Theorem

where si=M/pi and si-1 is the multiplicative

inverse of si mod pi, so that

Chinese Remainder Theorem

X1s1-1

mod p1

s1

X2s2-1

mod p2

s2

mod M

XL sL-1

mod pL

sL

Chinese Remainder Theorem

1*2

mod 3

20

0*3

mod 4

15

mod 60

4*3

mod 5

12

Conventional Complex RNS

A complex number Z is defined to be

Difficult Arithmetic Operations

Magnitude comparison / Sign detection

Division

Base extension

Scaling / Rounding / Truncation

Overflow detection

- Not a weighted number system.
- Every digits are equally important.

The problem makes the RNS-based signal processors inefficient.

- Blend of nested subtractions and magnitude comparisons, so it is more difficult in the RNS.

RNS is not closed under division, since the RNS is an integer system, it is.

Slow, high-overhead operation and should be avoided in RNS.

L - tuple RNS

K - tuple RNS

Moduli

extension

R/D conversion

D/R conversion

- Increase the dynamic range
- Increase the resolution.

R/D and D/R conversions are needed.

- Prevent dynamic-range overflow.
- A special form of division.

- The scaling operation is easily to implement when scaling factor is:
- power of two (2n) in 2’complement.
- product of one or more of the moduli in RNS.

- Take the form of magnitude comparison.
- To be avoided by using scaling operation during run-time.

- Filtering (FIR, IIR)
- Adaptive system
- Linear transformations