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Tourism and water pollution in the mediterranean
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Reference: [1]M.Haas, Peter. Saving The Mediterranean . New York: Columbia University press, 1990. 2 "The Mediterranean- A Closed Sea With Open Wounds." 02 Jan. 2006 <www.watchtower.org/library/g/1999/1/8/article_02.tm>.

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Tourism and Water Pollution in the Mediterranean

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Tourism and water pollution in the mediterranean

Reference:

[1]M.Haas, Peter. Saving The Mediterranean. New York: Columbia University press, 1990.

2 "The Mediterranean- A Closed Sea With Open Wounds." 02 Jan. 2006

<www.watchtower.org/library/g/1999/1/8/article_02.tm>.

3"Blue Wave Criteria." Management Practices and Criteria 200/05 Blue Wave Campaign. Clean

Beaches Council. 05 Feb. 2006 <www.cleanbeaches.org/bluewave/criteria.cfm>.

4 Batisse, Michel . "The blue plan for the Mediterranean." Expanded Academpic ASAP

(nd):pp72(3)- . Thomson Gale. 11 Feb 2006 <http://find.galegroup.com/itx printdoc.do?&prodid=EAIM&userGr..>.

5 "Blue Wave Campaign toughens Criteria." News and Media. May. 2003. Clean Beaches

Council. 04 Feb. 2006 <http://www.cleanbeaches.org/ mediacenter/trueblue

/archives.cfm?vin=2755#story1>.

6 Trimble, Jeff. "The tide turns on pollution in Mediterranean." Us. News&World Report 17 Sept

1984: 97. :39(1)- .. Thomas Gale. 11 Feb 2006 <http://find.galegroup.com/itx/retrieve.

do?\subjectParam=Locale%252528en%C%252..>.

7 Matters of Scale: September/ October 2001 Travels and Tribulations. World Watch Institute. 11 Feb. 2006 <http://www.worldwatch.org/pubs/mag/2001/145/mos/>.

  • Objective Criteria:

  • I. May include and not be limited to:

  • Measuring how much trash on the beach.

  • Measuring how much waste is produced from tourists.

  • Providing sufficient litter bins on the beach that are regularly emptied (Batisse).

  • 4)Taking the necessary measures to deal with the presence of exotic species ( Batisse).

  • 5) Insuring “laws covering beach use and appropriate codes of conduct are easily available to the public” ( Batisse).

  • 6)Having a blue plan for France on smaller level than the one for the whole Mediterranean.

  • II. The Blue Plan, which is a study which would help better understand the nature of the current problems and changes taking place in the sea in order to reach a good decision. “In the Blue Plan, a number of scenarios have been constructed for the Mediterranean system until the year 2005” (Batisse).

  • III. The Clean Beaches Council, a non-profit organization aiming at beach sustainability, has a list of criteria for the beaches participating in the national Blue Wave campaign in the year 2003. These criteria include:

    • Industrial discharges appropriate to standards to cause minimal negative effects on the environment and human health

    • No accumulation of algae and vegetation on the beach

    • Minimal trash and debris on the beach

    • Litter control and prevention methods in place

    • Appropriate handling or removal of stranded or dead marine organisms ( Blue Wave).

  • These criteria can be long term goals between the environmentalists and the sea resort owners.

Tourism and Water Pollution in the Mediterranean

Abstract:

The Mediterranean, located between Western Asia, Southern Europe and North Africa, is becoming very polluted. Tourism activities are one of the main reasons for the pollution. Millions of tourists come every year and their wastes are thrown in the Mediterranean. The governments of the Mediterranean countries should mediate the negotiation between the environmentalists and the tourism industry, like beach resorts. France is used as an example of how a balance can be created between having tourism and keeping the sea clean. The sea resort owners would like the flow of the tourists to continue to make more profit. The environmentalists would like to stop the pollution no matter the expenses can be. The objective criteria can be a yearly reduction of pollution in the sea and the expense to produce this reduction. The government can reward the followers of the agreements by reducing taxes or punish those who violate the agreement by fines and prison.

Introduction

The Mediterranean Sea faces threats from many sources of pollution: tourism, oil transportation, and rivers draining toxic materials into the sea. This sea only renews its water naturally every 80 to 100 years ( The Mediterranean). Tourism becomes a problem when 80% of the sewage is thrown into the sea. This contamination of the water makes bathing in some parts of the Mediterranean result in infections of the body and some diseases like hepatitis. However, many of the Mediterranean countries rely on tourism for income. The governments of the concerned countries, the environmentalists and the sea resort owners can negotiate how to maintain the income from industries while keeping the sea as clean as possible. France is one of the leading Mediterranean countries as she “is the most powerful state actor in Mediterranean” (M. Hass 40). France and Italy have the best research capabilities in the Mediterranean (M. Hass 85). France “is currently the top international tourist destination with 75.5 million visits in 2000” ( Matters of scale). In 1972, France also took steps in fighting pollution and had an initiative with Italy that did not succeed ( M. Hass 88). If France works internally to fight the pollution and succeeds in reducing it, other countries may take her as an example. France can lead the fight against water pollution.

Lina Gomaa, Creative Writing, Draft of February 15th, 2006

What are the interests?

Saving the Mediterranean from pollution, keeping it clean.

Preserving the fish and marine life.

Saving the flora of the Mediterranean.

Reducing pollution from oil tanks.

Continuing the level of tourism so the sea is appreciated.

Getting rid of the wastes from the tourists at a reasonable cost

Having France as a leading country in the Mediterranean in fighting pollution

Options:

The government can reward the followers of the agreements by :

Tax incentives to relieve the costs of controlling pollution

Fines and prison to punish those who violate the agreement

Investment of increased tax revenues in public pollution control efforts and the treatment of the wastes

[3]

Who are the people?

The Environmentalists: A representatives of the French NGOs: ADEME (Arrange Environment and Control of energy), which is concerned about water pollution in the Mediterranean coast.

The Sea resort owners: A representative of the owners of the sea resorts and activities in France: the director of the Organization Locale des Guides Azurees. This organization provides guided tours and excursions.

The French government: The government is the mediator and the facilitator between the Environmentalists and the Sea Resort owners. France is “the most powerful actor in Mediterranean” (M Hass 40). Moreover, France can be an example for the other Mediterranean countries to follow her example if she succeeded in reducing the pollution. France can lead other countries for agreements to end the water pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.

Reference:

1) M.Haas, Peter. Saving The Mediterranean. New York: Columbia University press, 1990.

2) "The Mediterranean- A Closed Sea With Open Wounds." 02 Jan. 2006

<www.watchtower.org/library/g/1999/1/8/article_02.tm>.

3) "Blue Wave Criteria." Management Practices and Criteria 200/05 Blue Wave Campaign. Clean

Beaches Council. 05 Feb. 2006 <www.cleanbeaches.org/bluewave/criteria.cfm>.

4) Batisse, Michel . "The blue plan for the Mediterranean." Expanded Academpic ASAP

(nd):pp72(3)- . Thomson Gale. 11 Feb 2006 <http://find.galegroup.com/itx printdoc.do?&prodid=

EAIM&userGr..>.

5) "Blue Wave Campaign toughens Criteria." News and Media. May. 2003. Clean Beaches

Council. 04 Feb. 2006 <http://www.cleanbeaches.org/ mediacenter/trueblue

/archives.cfm?vin=2755#story1>.

6) Matters of Scale: September/ October 2001 Travels and Tribulations. World Watch Institute. 11 Feb. 2006

<http://www.worldwatch.org/pubs/mag/2001/145/mos/>.


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