English Vocabulary Learning Strategy

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I. English Vocabulary Learning. 1.The requirement for primary school pupils The requirement laid down by the National Standards for English in Schools . . . . 2. What is vocabulary?Language consist of words. Vocabulary is the collection of words that an individual knows. Coursebooks for Young learners often emphasize nouns because they are easy to illustrate and because often young learners don't have literacy skills, so the only words that can easily be featured are nouns. .

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English Vocabulary Learning Strategy

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1. English Vocabulary Learning Strategy Yuan Chang Huan Beijing Institute of Education [email protected]

2. I. English Vocabulary Learning 1.The requirement for primary school pupils The requirement laid down by the National Standards for English in Schools

3.

4. 2. What is vocabulary? Language consist of words. Vocabulary is the collection of words that an individual knows. Coursebooks for Young learners often emphasize nouns because they are easy to illustrate and because often young learners don’t have literacy skills, so the only words that can easily be featured are nouns.

5. I t is important to remember that even though nouns are important, vocabulary is more than just nouns.

6. As a teacher, it is important that you include verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions as part of your vocabulary curriculum.

7. In addition, you will want to include different lexical fields such as colours, days of the week, and action verbs.

8. You will also want to make sure that children add these words to their receptive and expressive vocabulary. It is important to help young learners expand their vocabularies through formal and informal instruction.

9. 3. Background to the teaching of vocabulary Vocabulary development is very important for students to improve their language ability and skills. A variety of studies have proven that appropriate vocabulary instruction benefits language students, especially school-age learners.

10. According to McKeown and Beck (2003) it is important to use both formal and informal vocabulary instruction that engages students’ cognitive skills and gives opportunities for the learners to actually use the words.

11. For formal instruction, you will want to teach students the meanings of words and ways to uncover the meaning of words through direct instruction. Informal instruction is non-rule oriented and often a “by the way” approach.

12. You want students to use thinking skills such as analyzing which of the two words would be a better choice in a sentence. An example would be having children choose between the words enormous and big in a sentence about sandwiches.

13. You also want to give learners opportunities to use the words by playing games or responding to complex questions that include the words.

14. 4. The goal of vocabulary learning In other words, “the goal is for students to become word-savvy, to develop an understanding of how words work within the context of reading and writing, to become excited about words as they learn to manipulate them in playful ways.” (Brand, 2004. p4)

15. 5. How to reach the goal? Teachers should facilitate vocabulary learning by teaching learners useful words and by teaching strategies to help learners figure out meanings on their own.

16. 6. What are useful words? Useful words are words that children are likely to encounter-words that occur in a high frequency. Useful words are also words which are of interest and intriguing to children.

17. 7. Active and passive vocabulary 1)Active vocabulary “Words which students will need to understand and also use themselves. We call this active vocabulary. In teaching active vocabulary, it is usually worth spending time giving examples and asking questions, so that students can really see how the word is used.” Adrian Doff

18. 2)Passive vocabulary “Words which we want students to understand (e.g. when reading a text), but which they will not need to use themselves. We call this passive vocabulary. To save time, it is often best to present it quite quickly, with a simple example. If it appears as part of a text or dialogue, we can often leave students to guess the word from the context.” Adrian Doff

19. Example In Britain, the weather is very varied; people never know what it will be like the next day. The summer is warmer than the winter, but even in summer the average temperature is only 16?. Sometimes the sun shines, but at other times the sky is covered in cloud, and it often rains. In winter it is sometimes very cold, especially in the north of the country. The temperature may fall below 0?, and then there is often snow and ice. .

20. The best season of the year is probably late spring. At this time of year the Weather is often sunny and quite warm; the countryside looks very green, and there are wild flowers everywhere.

21. Which are active vocabulary or which are the passive vocabulary?

22. Active Passive Active weather cloud spring sunny (snow?) (ice?) Passive varied temperature average season countryside (snow?)

23. II. Why do learners need to acquire vocabulary learning strategies? Learners need to acquire vocabulary learning strategies in order to discover the meaning of words.

24. 1. The strategies should be useful within the classroom as well as when learners are in a situation where they encounter new and unfamiliar words on their own. 2. The strategies should also help children acquire new vocabulary words that they hear and see. 3. Requirement ????.doc

25. III. English Vocabulary Learning Strategies 1.Using context clues The teacher should train students to use context clues to guess the meaning of words. E.g.1: A: Can we have a meeting sometime next week? B: Well, let me check my diary. E.g.2: He is a five-foot-tall man. The building is 40 feet high.

26. The following ways can be suggested: 1)Using synonym to guess the meaning of new words E.g. (1) In China, our school begins at eight o’clock. When do American school start? (2) Chinese school finishes at half past four and American school ends at four.

27. 2)Using antonym to guess the meaning of new words. E.g. (1)This tree is tall. That tree is short. Short means ______. a. old b. not tall c. good (2) This monkey is thin. That monkey is fat. Thin means ____. a. not fat b. tall c. big (3) This panda is small. That panda is big. Small means ________. a. not tall b. not big c. short

28. Exercise 1

29. Exercises 2 Supply a word which is the opposite of the word underlined . 1) I have lent John another 10 dollars. That is the third time he has ____ money from me . 2) I get on well with my uncle Jim, and I think I am his favourite .____. 3) Mr. Brown is not married. He is still _____.

30. 3)Using the whole sentence to guess the meaning of new words E.g. (1)She loves music: she can play the guitar, the piano and the cello. (2) He walked into the sitting-room and sat down on the settee. (3) Look! There’s a big fly on the window.

31. 4) Using the paragraph and the whole passage to guess the meaning of words

32. E.g. Daming: What are you doing, Simon? Simon: I’m putting my new stamps into my album. These are some stamps from Canada. And these are some stamps from England. And these ones are very, very old. They are from America.

33. album means a. songs b. music on CD c. book in which you keep photos or stamps

34. 2. Using association word association table desk bed wardrobe chair cupboard stool

35. classroom teacher’s office sound lab dining hall chemistry lab clinic library reading room

36. Put the things into the right boxes.

37. 2) situation association E.g: Eating out

38.

39. 3?Using pictures and images Using pictures for people, animals, objects

40. Animals:

41. Vehicles:

42. Clothes:

43. Jobs:

44. Food:

45. Using images: E.g. building “Houses are buildings . This school is also a building .In big cities there are many large buildings – there are hotels, and offices , and cinemas. They are all buildings of different kinds.”

46. E.g. lazy “Some people work hard, other people don’t work hard –they are lazy. For example , I have a brother. He is very lazy. He gets up late, and then he does nothing all day. I said to him,“ Don’t be so lazy ! Do some work!”

47. 4?Using classification E.g. 1:Words about food

50. E.g. 2:Words to describe people

52. 5?Using formation of words 1)Prefix

53. 5?Using formation of words 1)Prefix Read the following sentences, and guess the meaning of the italicized words. 1. He did not write his composition well and the teacher told him to rewrite it. 2. Mr Smith unlocked the door and went into the house. 3. He had been overworking and fell sick at last. 4. I was ill last night and my mother took me to hospital at midnight. 5. It is impolite to turn your back on someone who is speaking to you.

54. 2)Suffix: There are four kinds of Suffix: noun suffix, adj suffix, verb suffix and adverb suffix .

55. 2)Suffix:

56. Exercises E.g 1: A person who paints is called a . A person who swims is called a .

57. E.g 2: 1)The research worker divided his material into different classes. He his material. 2) The police are sure of the identity of the murderer. They have him. 3)The ugly old witch filled the children with terror. she them. 4) He put the book into simple language .He the book. 5)He tried to show what he had done was just and right . He tried to what he had done.

58. E.g.3 : Read the following sentences, and guess the meaning of the italicized words. 1.You must stop dreaming and face reality. 2.Travel broadens the mind. 3.My work is still in the experimental stage. 4.He did too little preparation for his examination. 5.The line of waiting people seemed to be endless. 6.I was very much impressed by the friendliness of the people there. 7.The country is trying to popularize education. 8.Our troops won a decisive victory in that battle. 9.They were very friendly and even offered assistance. 10. The magazine is called ‘English Language Learning’ and is published monthly.

59. 3)Compound words E.g. textbook(???), icy-cold(???), blackboard(??), headmaster(? ?), mother-in-law (??)?

60. There are two things for students to pay attention to: (1)stress in at the beginning E.g. ´greenhouse ---- green house ´hotdog --- hot dog ´bluebird--- blue bird ´redcoat --- red coat

61. (2)The meaning of the compound words can be the meaning of the words: E.g:type writer, bottle opener, blackboard, icy cold,etc. But in most cases, the meaning of the compound words is not the meaning of the words: E.g:playground, notebook ,redcoat (????)? Hotdog(??),bluebird (??),white-collar(????)

62. Exercises 1. Identify and underline the compound nouns in these sentences. (Not all the sentences have compound nouns in them and some have more than one.) 1)We bought a town plan at the corner shop. 2) I’d like a return ticket to London, please. 3) Do you want to go to the sports center this evening? There’s a good tennis match on. 4) He was wearing a brown coat and a pair of jeans. 5) We decided to meet in the hotel bar. 6) There was a small gas fire in the corner of the town. 7) There’s a lovely little fruit market on Wednesdays. It’s very cheap and the fruit is really nice. 8) He walked in, sat down, and started reading a magazine. 9) I took the film to a photo shop, but the shop assistant said it was too old to develop. 10)Please do not make copies for personal use with this machine. It is for office use only.

63. Exercises 2. He drives buses he is a bus driver. He makes shoes he is a shoemaker.

64. 3. A bus driver is someone who drives a bus. A shoemaker is someone who makes shoes.

65. 4. How do you call someone who plays tennis? How do you call someone is the owns a shop? How do yon call someone who robs a bank? How do you call someone who loves animals?

66. 5?Using dictionary correctly Young learners can benefit from using dictionaries. 1) Very young children can use a picture dictionary where words are grouped into different categories.

67. 2) Children who are at the beginning stages of language and literacy development can also use picture dictionaries as a tool to help them increase both their vocabulary knowledge and their use of context clues.

68. 3) Learners with English language literacy skills can also use dictionaries where the words are placed in alphabetical order. 4) As a teacher, it is important to teach children how to use different dictionaries. 5) Students who use electronic dictionaries need to be cautioned regarding their limitation.

69. IV. Principles for training students’ vocabulary learning strategy 1.Spending more time on the high frequency words 1)Teacher teaches or presents the words 2)Words should be integrated into teaching the four skills. (TPR) 3) Design some tasks or exercises. 4) Ask students to use the words to do some speaking and writing in order to use them.

70. 2. Using the right learning strategy 1)Guess the meaning of the low frequency words in the context, using formation and dictionary 2)Learn the high frequency words through listening, speaking, reading and writing.

71. 3.Using the high frequency words in listening, speaking, reading and writing 4.Encourage students to be responsible for their vocabulary learning.

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