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The Bologna Process Implemented. ECTS Workshop Novi Sad April 2006. Implementing the Bologna Declaration: The Bologna Process. Challenges 2005/2007 - Still. Quality Assurance. Academic Recognition. Qualifications framework. Evaluation Accreditation. Bachelor Master Doctorate.

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The bologna process implemented

The Bologna Process Implemented

ECTS Workshop

Novi Sad April 2006

[email protected]



Implementing the bologna declaration the bologna process
Implementing the Bologna Declaration: The Bologna Process

Challenges 2005/2007 - Still

Quality Assurance

Academic Recognition

Qualifications framework

Evaluation

Accreditation

Bachelor

Master

Doctorate

  • Credit Transfer

  • Credit Accumulation

Qualifying Learning Outcomes quantified by credits

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Phase 1

Phase 1

How to get there –

an inductive approach by universities (e.g. „Tuning educational structures in Europe):

Employability

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Learning Chain

Labour Market

Change of paradigm

Learnig outcomes

Subject related

-Knowledge broadening

-Knowledge deepening

Generic

-Knowledge access and

developing

Learners

Selection

(accumulates credits)

Learning space

(Teaching and learning, Research

Learning material,

Learning methods...)

Total Quality Management

Labour Market

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Tuning project weighted ranking of the most importance competences all subjects
Tuning ProjectWeighted Ranking of the Most Importance Competences (All Subjects)

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Fundamental importance weighted ranking of the least important competences all subjects
Fundamental Importance: Weighted Ranking of the Least Important Competences (All Subjects)

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Phase 2

Phase 2

Terminology

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Definition
Definition

Learning outcomes / competences

  • Statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand, and / or be able to do at the end of a period of learning

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Terminology
Terminology

Workload

  • A quantitative measure of all learning activities that may be feasibly required for the achievement of the learning outcomes

    Credit

  • A quantified means of expressing the volume of learning based on the achievement of learning outcomes and their associated workload

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Terminology1
Terminology

Profile

  • Either the specific (subject) field(s) of learning of a qualification or the broader aggregation of clusters of qualifications of programmes from different fields that share a common emphasis or purpose (e.g. an applied vocational as opposed to more theoretical academic studies)

    Levels

  • Representing a series of sequential steps (a development continuum), expressed in terms of generic outcomes, against which typical qualifications can be positioned

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Phase 3

Phase 3

Link with ECTS –

For transfer, accumulation and academic recognition

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Ects key features
ECTS - Key Features

  • Student-centred system

  • Based on workload required to achieve learning outcomes

  • “Convention” that 60 credits represents an annual workload of a full-time student

  • Allocated to all aspects of study programme

  • Based on completion + assessment

  • Respect for the Learning Agreement between student and institutions

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Ects guidelines
ECTS - Guidelines

  • About 40 weeks of full-time learning

  • Normally 1 credit equals 25-30 hours

  • Time to be invested by the learner to achieve the learning outcomes, including independent studies

  • Credits are allocated in such a way that the first academic degree can be obtained on the basis of 180-240 credits predetermined in a respective study-programme

  • This has to be stated in the ECTS documents

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Ects links
ECTS - Links

  • Workload = Learning

  • Learning assessed = Credits

  • Requirement = Learning has to be assessed (this must be possible)

  • „Assessability“ = by defining the learning outcomes

  • Need = adequate method of assessment

  • Extension (B/C/M) = ECVET

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Documents
Documents

  • Informationpackage / Course Catalogue

  • Learning Agreement

  • Transcript of Records

  • Diploma Supplement

  • Extension within Brugges/Copenhagen/Maastricht

    (B/C/M-Process)

    • Europass

      • CV, Language Pass, Mobility Pass, Certificate Supplement, Diploma Supplement

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Phase 31

Phase 3

The Learning Chain in Terms of Bologna

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Learning Chain

Tools - Documents

Labour Market

Change of Paradigm

Learning Outcomes

Subject-related

-Knowledge

Deepening / Widening

Generic

-Skills / Competences

Knowledge opening / developing

QFR-NQR-HQR-SQR

Learner

Credit Transfer +

Accumulation

Application /CV /

Learning Agreement/

TOR / Mobility Pass

Language Pass

Diploma/Certificate

Supplement

Learning Space

Teaching and Learning,

Research

Learning Environment

Information Package /

Course Catalogue

Labour Market

Quality Assurance/ -enhancement

Standards & Guidelines / Register


Bologna in action
Bologna in Action

Indicators

Trainability/

Learning

Agreement

Learning Space

-wherever-

Information Pack.

Employability

Modularisation

Descriptors

Individual

Selection

Learning Outcomes

Profile

  • Performance

    • Credits

    • Grade

Level

Workload

Award /

Diploma Supplement

Credit

Transfer /

Accumulation

Transcript

of Records

Indicators

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Bologna in action1
Bologna in Action

Indicators

Trainability/

Learning

Agreement

Information

Package

Employability

Structure of a Module

Tuning

6x4

  • Individual

  • Selection

    • Interview

    • Portfolio u.a.

  • Learning Outcomes:

  • Subj. rel. /non subj. rel.

  • Knowledge widening

  • Knowledge deepening

  • Knowledge accessing

    • Instrumental

    • Interpersonal

    • systemic

Dublin Descriptors

Qualifications-framework

  • Performance

    • Credits

      • 5

    • Grade

      • Local

      • Ranking

LLL

Workload

-Effectiveness - Efficiency

Award /

Diploma Supplement

Transfer /

Accumulation

Transcript

of Records

Indicators

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Phase 4

Phase 4

Qualifications Frameworks –

Bundles of learning outcomes to define a qualification – an overview

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Qualificationsframework

-Referenceframework-

EU-Commission

QFW for LLL

Brugges-

Copenhagen-

Maastricht-

Process

Min. of Education

Higher Education

QFW for EHEA

Bologna-Process

Levels of

Qualifications-

-Bachelor

-Master

-Doctorat

Levels of

Qualifications

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5

6 – 7 - 8

Described by bundling

learning outcomes according to the

„Dublin Descriptors“ with Credits

Described by bundling

learning outcomes

according to descriptors

Knowledge

and

understanding

Applying

k&u

Making

judgements

Knowledge

&

Under-

standing

Skills

Competences

Communication

Learn to learn

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Onionmodel

LEARN

I

N

G

O

U

T

C

Q

EQF

NQF

Q

RECOGNITION

HQF SQF

FQF BQF

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41 the european qualifications framework for higher education

41 The European Qualifications Framework for Higher Education

The Dublin Descriptors

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Joint quality initiative dublin descriptors
Joint Quality Initiative – EducationDublin Descriptors

Knowledge and understanding

  • 1 (Bachelor) [is] supported by advanced text books [with] some aspects informed by knowledge at the forefront of their field of study ...2 (Master) provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing or applying ideas often in a research context ...3 (Doctorate) [includes] a systematic understanding of their field of study and mastery of the methods of research associated with that field

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Further criteria
Further criteria Education

  • Applying knowledge and understanding

  • Making judgements

  • Communication

  • Learning skills

    • http://www.jointquality.org

      See the following slides:

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1 (Bachelor) Education [through] devising and sustaining arguments2 (Master) [through] problem solving abilities [applied] in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts ..3 (Doctorate) [is demonstrated by the] ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial process of research* with scholarly integrity .. [is in the context of] a contribution that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work some of which merits national or international refereed publication ..

Applying knowledge and understanding

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Making judgements Education1 (Bachelor) [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data ..2 (Master) [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgements with incomplete data ..3 (Doctorate) [requires being] capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas..

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1 (Bachelor) Education [of] information, ideas, problems and solutions ..2 (Master) [of] their conclusions and the underpinning knowledge and rationale (restricted scope) to specialist and non-specialist audiences (monologue) 3 (Doctorate) with their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in general (dialogue) about their areas of expertise (broad scope)..

Communication

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1 Education (Bachelor) have developed those skills needed to study further with a high level of autonomy ..2 (Master) study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous..3 (Doctorate) expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement ..

Learning skills

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Phase 41

Phase 41 Education

At European level - Idea of the European Commission within the Brugges Copenhagen-Maastricht Process

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Michael Teutsch Education

EU-Kommission

EQF level 8

Q

NQF/NQS

EQF level 7

NQF/ NQS

Q

EQF level 6

Q

NQF/NQS

EQF level 5

NQF/ NQS

Q

NQF/NQS

EQF level 4

Q

EQF level 3

Q

NQF/NQS

Q

NQF/ NQS

EQF level

EQF level 1

Country B

Country A


Phase 43

Phase 43 Education

At sectoral / discipline level –

Example: Bachelor in Business and Management

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Phase 44

Phase 44 Education

At university level –

Example: Osnabrueck University of Applied Sciences, D

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Learning Outcomes and Levels Education

Bachelor Degree 3 years

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The ability to / is able to work with …. Education

Knowledge and Understanding

Knowledge Widening

Level 1

A broad basis of the subject area / of the disciplines in general

Accounting:

-describe and explain

the role of accounting as part of

the information management system

in an organisation …

Knowledge which is embedded in the essential theories, concepts and principles

An awareness about

The developing and

Dynamic type of

knowledge

and understanding

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Phase 5

Phase 5 Education

Quality Enhancement :

Accreditation and Evaluation

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Quality enhancement
Quality Enhancement Education

  • Measures

    • Qualitative measuring is pursued through the achievement of the learning outcomes in the time foreseen (performance) (ex-post) – What?

    • Qualitative measuring is pursued by grading how the student performed (rating) (ex-post) – How?

    • Quantitative measuring is pursued by allocating the workload expressed in credits (ex-ante) – How much?

    • Consequencen of the results measured lead to a formative evaluation, i.e. help to support a continuous quality improvement

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Ects grades rating
„ECTS-Grades“ = Rating Education

  • Credits = The learner was successful

  • Grades = How (to which extent) was the learner successful in his performance

  • Two systems = - Local Grades - Rating in relation to past cohorts (3-5 years)

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Assessment rating

Of the successful students Education

The best 10%

The following 25%

The following 30%

The following 25%

The following 10%

ECTS-Grade

A

B

C

D

E

Assessment / Rating

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Assessment rating1

Of the unsuccessful students Education

Amendments are required before the performance could be considered as „passed“

Significant amendments are required

Grade

FX

F

Assessment / Rating

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51 external accreditation and evaluation

51 External Accreditation and Evaluation Education

Example:

Changes in Germany due to Bologna -

New Forms of Governance

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Accreditation and evaluation
Accreditation and Evaluation Education

  • Essential for public funding. Variations in the federal states.

  • Accreditation

    • Prior to the start of a study-programme

    • Related to a definite point of time

  • Evaluation

    • Ex-ante / formative (on-line) / ex-post

    • Related to a period of time

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Accreditation
Accreditation Education

  • 1 German Accreditation Board

  • 6 Accreditation agencies

    • Broad / regional + transnational

    • Specific / whole of Germany + transnational

  • Each accreditation agency has one general committee to decide

    • Members from universities, business, organisations, students

    • Supported by the administration of the agencies

  • Several agencies also have subject oriented committees

  • Peer review

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52 internal accreditation and evaluation

52 Internal Accreditation and Evaluation Education

Example:

Osnabrueck University of Applied Sciences, D

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Evaluation
Evaluation Education

  • Internal Quality Enhancement System

    • Description of modules and all learning and teaching relevant information on Intranet

    • Learning and teaching material on Intranet (comparable to open-source facilities: discussion groups, mailing lists, etc.)

    • Every semester:

      • evaluation of teaching and learning (student questionnaire) – not yet published (teacher receives the filled-in questionnaires)

      • Evaluation of workload (student questionnaire plus evaluation in module oriented working groups

  • „Watchdogs“: Internal Faculty and Study Boards (all groups of university members, incl. students are represented)

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6 achievements

6 Achievements Education

So far

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Where are we in terms of bologna
Where are we in terms of Bologna? Education

  • „On the road“ (shuttle service)

    • Regular stocktaking

    • Regular conferences

    • Bologna follow-up groups,…etc.

  • In short

    • Many stakeholders

    • Not a top-down approach

    • THE reform of the past 30 years European-wide

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Bologna Education

Join forces

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