Microbiology
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Microbiology. What is microbiology?. Study of microscopic (living ) things  microorganism. The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 . 3 Domains. Eubacteria - true bacteria, peptidoglycan

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Microbiology

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Microbiology


What is microbiology?

Study of microscopic (living ) things  microorganism


The three-domain system is

a biological classification introduced

by Carl Woese in 1990


3 Domains

  • Eubacteria - true bacteria, peptidoglycan

  • Archaea - odd bacteria that live in extreme environments, high salt, heat, etc.

  • Eukarya- have a nucleus and organelles


Insert figure 1.15

Woese-Fox System


Naming Micoorganisms

  • Binomial (scientific) nomenclature

  • Gives each microbe 2 names:

    • Genus - noun, always capitalized

    • species - adjective, lowercase

  • Both italicized or underlined

    • Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)

    • Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis)

    • Escherichia coli(E. coli)

  • Inspiration for names is extremely varied and often imaginative


Size of microbes

  • Bacteria: 1.0 – 0.5 x 1.0 – 10 mm

  • Fungi: 8.0 – 15 x 4.0 – 8 mm

  • Alga: 28 – 32 x 8.0 – 12 mm

  • Protozoa: 0.01 – 0.5 mm

  • Virus: 0.015 – 0.3 mm

  • (Human eye) can see 0.1 mm (1 x 10-3 m)


Tools of Microbiology

  • Light Microscope

    - live specimens

    - 1,000 x mag. or less

  • Electron Microscope

    - non-living specimens

    - > 1,000 x mag.


Microscope

Light microscope

Electron microscope


Techniques of Microbiology

  • Staining – to better see structures

  • Microbial Culture - growing the microbe

  • Container for microbe culture

    - usually Petri dish

  • Culture media

    - Food for the microbes

    - E.g. Agar – (from red algae)

    - Others such as nutrient broths


Staining


Solid media


Liquid media


Scope of Microbiology

  • Environmental Microbiology

  • Industrial Microbiology

  • Agricultural Microbiology

  • Medical Microbiology

  • Food Microbiology


What is the importance of studying microbiology?


Benefits

  • Genetic engineering

  • Synthesis of chemical products

  • Recycling sewage

  • Bioremediation: use microbes to remove toxins (oil spills)

  • Use of microbes to control crop pests

  • Manufacture of food and drink


Harmful effects

  • Cause disease (basis for bioterrorism)

  • Food spoilage

  • Food poisoning

Listeria

Staphylococcus aureus

Flu virus

Yersinia

HIV


Worldwide infectious disease statistics

Depicts the 10 most common infectious causes of disease


History of Microbiology

  • 1590 – First compound light microscope Zacharias Janssen


Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

  • Dutch linen merchant

  • First to observe living microbes

  • Single-lens magnified up to 300X

Insert figure 1.8


Insert figure 1.9 (a)

microscope


  • 1796 – First vaccine (smallpox)

    Edward Jenner


Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

  • Showed microbes caused fermentation and spoilage

  • Disproved spontaneous generation of microorganisms

  • Developed pasteurization

  • Demonstrated what is now known as Germ Theory of Disease

  • Developed a rabies vaccine

Insert figure 1.11


Page 14.d


  • 1867 Antiseptic Surgery/techniques

    Joseph Lister


  • 1876 – specific m.o cause specific diseases

  • Pure culture technique

    Robert Koch


Robert Koch (1843-1910)

  • Established Koch’s postulates - a sequence of experimental steps that verified the germ theory

  • Identified cause of anthrax, TB, and cholera

  • Developed pure culture methods

Insert figure 1.12


Koch’s Postulates

Determining the causative or etiologic agent of infectious disease:

  • Find evidence of a particular microbe in every case of a disease.

  • Isolate that microbe from an infected subject and cultivate it artificially in the laboratory.

  • Inoculate a susceptible healthy subject with the laboratory isolate and observe the resultant disease.

  • Reisolate the agent from this subject.


  • 1885 - Vaccine against Rabies (Louis Pasteur)


  • 1929 Discovery of Penicillin

    (first antibiotic)

    Alexander Fleming


  • 1938 – First Electron Microscope

  • The electron microscope is capable of magnifying biological specimens up to one million times. These computer enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2. herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are magnified, respectively, 150,000, 150,000 and 90,000 times.


History

1953 Structure of DNA Revealed

Watson & Crick


1954 Polio Vaccine

Jonas Salk


Microbiology today

  • Immunology  clinical application of immune reaction, diagnose disease.

  • Virology  phage therapy

  • Genetic engineering/ Recombinant DNA Tech.  improvement of microorganism


References:

  • Introduction of Microbiology,

    Third Edition. 2004.

    John L. Ingraham, Catherine A. Ingraham.

  • Principles of Modern Microbiology. 2008. Mark Wheelis.


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