Study traces AIDS virus origin to 100 years ago
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Study traces AIDS virus origin to 100 years ago

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Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Study traces AIDS virus origin to 100 years ago

“Researchers took advantage of the fact that HIV mutates rapidly. So two strains from a common ancestor quickly become less and less alike in their genetic material over time. That allows scientists to "run the clock backward" by calculating how long it would take for various strains to become as different as they are observed to be. That would indicate when they both sprang from their most recent common ancestor.

The new work used genetic data from the two old HIV samples plus more than 100 modern samples to create a family tree going back to these samples' last common ancestor. Researchers got various answers under various approaches for when that ancestor virus appeared, but the 1884-to-1924 bracket is probably the most reliable, Worobey said.”


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

cynodonts


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

cynodonts

Mammaliamorpha

Mammaliaformes

Mammalia: All descendants from

the MRCA of living mammals.


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

cynodonts

Mammaliamorpha

Mammaliaformes


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

cynodonts

Mammaliamorpha (transition to

dentary-squamosal joint begins)

Mammaliaformes

(formation of dentary-squamosal

“single jaw hinge” complete)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

TraitPelycosaursTherapsidsCynodonts

Posture:sprawlingintermediateupright

Teeth:weakly heterodontincreasingly heterodontstrongly hetero

Palate:no secondary palatepartialcomplete

“-apsidy”small temporal fenestraenlarged fenestravastly expanded

Postdentary bones:present, largepresent, reducedabsent

greatly reduced


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

cynodonts

Mammaliamorpha (transition to

dentary-squamosal joint begins)

Mammaliaformes

(formation of dentary-squamosal

“single jaw hinge” complete)

Mammalia: All descendants from

the MRCA of living mammals.


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Mammalia

Mammaliaformes

Mammaliamorpha


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Mesozoic

Morganucodon

Paleozoic

Mammalia (and some mammaliaforms)

  • Completion of dentary-squamosal jaw joint

  • Cheekteeth divided into premolars and molars

  • Diphyodonty

  • BUT TINY! For 170 million years!


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

cynodonts

Mammaliamorpha

Mammaliaformes

Mammalia: All descendants from

the MRCA of living mammals.


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Mammalia

Mammaliaformes

Mammaliamorpha


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Multituberculates

(extinct prototherians)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Multituberculates

(extinct prototherians)

Late Jurassic-Mid. Miocene

(ca. 150 m.y.)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Multituberculates

(extinct prototherians)

Late Jurassic-Mid. Miocene

(ca. 150 m.y.)

Diverse, found on all continents


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Multituberculates

(extinct prototherians)

Late Jurassic-Mid. Miocene

(ca. 150 m.y.)

Diverse, found on all continents

Ever-growing lower incisors,

plagialacoid (blade-like)

molariform teeth


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Multituberculates

(extinct prototherians)

Late Jurassic-Mid. Miocene

(ca. 150 m.y.)

Diverse, found on all continents

Ever-growing lower incisors,

plagialacoid (blade-like)

molariform teeth

Outcompeted to extinction?

(rodents, early primates...)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

(INFRACLASSES)

Prototheria (SUBCLASS)

Metatheria

Eutheria

Theria

(SUBCLASS)

Mammalia (CLASS)

Mammaliaformes

Mammaliamorpha


Extant mammalian diversity

Extant mammalian diversity

Class MAMMALIA

Subclass Prototheria

Subclass Theria

Infraclass Metatheria

1 Order (Monotremata)

2 Families

3 species

7 Orders

19 Families

272 species

Infraclass Eutheria

18 Orders

114 Families

4354 species


Extant mammalian diversity1

Extant mammalian diversity

Class MAMMALIA

Subclass Prototheria

Subclass Theria

Infraclass Metatheria

1 Order (Monotremata)

2 Families

3 5 species

7 Orders

19 21 Families

272 331 species

xx

x

xxx

Infraclass Eutheria

xx

18 21 Orders

114 130 Families

4354 5078 species

xxx

xxxx


The radiation of placental mammals

The radiation of placental mammals

Since end of Mesozoic, placental (eutherian) mammals dominant terrestrial vertebrates on all continents except Australia and Antarctica.

When and why did this diversification occur?


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

“Age of Mammals”

K/T boundary

“Age of Dinosaurs”


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Tertiary


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

K/T

boundary


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Most/all eutherian orders originated & diversify

AFTER K/T

(traditionally, fossils supported this)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Most/all eutherian orders originated & diversify

AFTER K/T

(traditionally, fossils supported this)

Orders originate BEFORE K/T but don’t diversify until

AFTER K/T

(more recently discovered fossils support)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Most/all eutherian orders originated & diversify

AFTER K/T

(traditionally, fossils supported this)

Orders originate BEFORE K/T but don’t diversify until

AFTER K/T

(more recently discovered fossils support)

Most orders originate & diversify BEFORE K/T

(older molecular studies support)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

1 Order (Monotremata)

2 Families

Tachyglossidae (echidnas or “spiny anteaters”)

4 species.

Ornithorhynchidae (platypus)

1 species


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

Few fossils, never very diverse. BUT PERSISTED.


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

Few fossils, never very diverse. BUT PERSISTED.

Echidnas: fossils from 55-60 Mya, oldest in S. AMERICA


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

Few fossils, never very diverse. BUT PERSISTED.

Echidnas: fossils from 55-60 Mya, oldest in S. AMERICA

Platypus: fossils from 120 Mya, oldest in AUSTRALIA

(Paleocene fossils in S. AMERICA).


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

Few fossils, never very diverse. BUT PERSISTED.

Echidnas: fossils from 55-60 Mya, oldest in S. AMERICA

Platypus: fossils from 120 Mya, oldest in AUSTRALIA

(Paleocene fossils in S. AMERICA).

Many plesiomorphic features, but some apomorphies.


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKULL FEATURES:

•No teeth in living adults BUT fossil platys & living

neonates have, then lose. LOSS=apomorphy


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKULL FEATURES:

•No teeth in living adults BUT fossil platys & living

neonates have, then lose. LOSS=apomorphy

•No lacrimals (APOMORPHY)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKULL FEATURES:

•No teeth in living adults BUT fossil platys & living

neonates have, then lose. LOSS=apomorphy

•No lacrimals (APOMORPHY)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKULL FEATURES:

•No teeth in living adults BUT fossil platys & living

neonates have, then lose. LOSS=apomorphy

•No lacrimals (APOMORPHY)

•Cranial sutures fused, indistinct (APOMORPHY)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKULL FEATURES:

•No teeth in living adults BUT fossil platys & living

neonates have, then lose. LOSS=apomorphy

•No lacrimals (APOMORPHY)

•Cranial sutures fused, indistinct (APOMORPHY)

•Jugal reduced or absent (APOMORPHY)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKELETAL FEATURES:


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKELETAL FEATURES:

•Epipubic bones present, large (PLESIOMORPHY)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKELETAL FEATURES:

•Epipubic bones present, large (PLESIOMORPHY)

•Cervical ribs (PLESIOMORPHY)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKELETAL FEATURES:

•Epipubic bones present, large (PLESIOMORPHY)

•Cervical ribs (PLESIOMORPHY)

•Horny, hollow spur on inside of ankle (APOMORPHY)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Warren et al. (2008). Nature 453, 175-183.


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKELETAL FEATURES:

•Epipubic bones present, large (PLESIOMORPHY)

•Cervical ribs (PLESIOMORPHY)

•Horny, hollow spur on inside of ankle (APOMORPHY)

•Pectoral girdle with large precoracoids, coracoids,

interclavicle (PLESIOMORPHY)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

SKELETAL FEATURES:

•Epipubic bones present, large (PLESIOMORPHY)

•Cervical ribs (PLESIOMORPHY)

•Horny, hollow spur on inside of ankle (APOMORPHY)

•Pectoral girdle with large precoracoids, coracoids,

interclavicle (PLESIOMORPHY)

•Skeleton sprawling, “reptilian” (PLESIOMORPHY)

BUT, good for swimming, digging.


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

OTHER FEATURES:

•Pouch (echidnas only)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

OTHER FEATURES:

•Pouch (echidnas only)

•Testes permanently abdominal (no scrotum)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

OTHER FEATURES:

•Pouch (echidnas only)

•Testes permanently abdominal (no scrotum)

•Uteri fused


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

OTHER FEATURES:

•Pouch (echidnas only)

•Testes permanently abdominal (no scrotum)

•Uteri fused

•Leathery egg with nutrient-rich yolk


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

OTHER FEATURES:

•Pouch (echidnas only)

•Testes permanently abdominal (no scrotum)

•Uteri fused

•Leathery egg with nutrient-rich yolk

•Rostrum lacks vibrissae, elongate

•cloaca (but....)


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

OTHER FEATURES:

•Pouch (echidnas only)

•Testes permanently abdominal (no scrotum)

•Uteri fused

•Leathery egg with nutrient-rich yolk

•Rostrum lacks vibrissae, elongate

•cloaca (but...)

•Endothermic, but low Tb and metabolic rates


Study traces aids virus origin to 100 years ago

Subclass Prototheria

OTHER FEATURES:

•Pouch (echidnas only)

•Testes permanently abdominal (no scrotum)

•Uteri fused

•Leathery egg with nutrient-rich yolk

•Rostrum lacks vibrissae, elongate

•cloaca (but...)

•Endothermic, but low Tb and metabolic rates

•Electroreception (snout), including echidnas


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