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Oceanography: Properties of Water. Density of Water. Density - ____________________________________________________________________ The equation for density is: D = ______. A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space. m. v. increases.

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Density of water
Density of Water

  • Density - ____________________________________________________________________

  • The equation for density is: D = ______

A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space.

m

v


increases

  • In most substances the density _______________ as the substance loses energy and the temperature _______________.

  • As the phase changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid the density _______________.

decreases

increases


Gas

liquid

  • _______________ and _______________ water work this way. As they cool the particles get closer together and the density _________________.

increases


Solid

less

**The density of liquid water is 1 g/cm3 and the density of solid water is .92 g/cm3

crystal lattice


different

important


Polarity of water
Polarity of Water water ______________ to life on Earth.

oxygen

  • Water is a _______________ molecule, which means that it has a ________ charge and a ________ charge.

polar

-

+

+ positive

+

- negative

hydrogen


Hydrogen water ______________ to life on Earth.

  • The polarity allows water to create ____________________ bonds between individual molecules. This is what makes water so _____________ and why water has such a high boiling point.

sticky


0 water ______________ to life on Earth.° C

  • Water freezes at _________

    Water boils at ___________

  • Liquid water exists between __________

  • This is also what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

100° C

0°-100° C

different

important


polarity water ______________ to life on Earth.

ions

  • Water’s _____________ also allows it to interact with other substances called _________.

  • ____________ increase the density of water and change the temperatures at which they freeze and boil.

    • When ions are dissolved in water

      the boiling point ___________________

      and the freezing point __________________

ions

Increases (~100.3°)

Decreases (~-2°)


Why is water different than most other substances
Why Is Water Different Than Most Other Substances? water ______________ to life on Earth.

  • It is the only polar molecule known

  • It expands when turning into a solid

  • Its molecules get closer together when it condenses


Why does water take so much energy to heat up
Why Does Water Take So Much Energy To Heat Up? water ______________ to life on Earth.

  • All of the molecules are bonded by hydrogen bonds

  • All of the molecules are bonded by covalent bonds

  • It is very dense

  • It doesn’t – it heats up faster than land


Why do people put salt on streets when it snows
Why Do People Put Salt On Streets When It Snows? water ______________ to life on Earth.

  • It keeps the snow from falling on the streets

  • It makes the water on the streets freeze at a higher temperature

  • It makes the water on the streets freeze at a lower temperature


Oceanography properties of ocean water

Oceanography: Properties of Ocean Water water ______________ to life on Earth.


Average depth of ocean vs average elevation of land draw what you see
Average Depth of Ocean vs. Average Elevation of Land water ______________ to life on Earth.(Draw What You See…)


Properties of ocean water
Properties of Ocean Water water ______________ to life on Earth.

> 70

  • _______ % of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans. The average depth of the ocean is more than ____________ greater than the average elevation on land.

  • Five Oceans

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

four times

Pacific

Atlantic

Indian

Arctic

Southern (Antarctic)


Components of seawater the most common dissolved solids in seawater are

Sodium Chloride water ______________ to life on Earth.

Magnesium Sulfate

Calcium Sulfate

Na+Cl-

Mg2+SO42-

Ca2+SO42-

Components of SeawaterThe most common dissolved solids in seawater are:


Components of seawater
Components of Seawater water ______________ to life on Earth.

Some other ions that are found in seawater are:

  • Carbonate CO3- (builds shells)

  • Gold Au+

  • Uranium U+

  • Bromine Br-


Components of seawater1
Components of Seawater water ______________ to life on Earth.

  • The ion that is most abundant in seawater is ______________

  • Carbonate ( ) is a way that ____________ is stored in the ocean

chloride, Cl-

CO3-

carbon


Salinity of seawater
Salinity of Seawater water ______________ to life on Earth.

Salinity

  • ____________ is a measurement of the dissolved ____________ in sea water.

Solids (salts)

CDT measures conductivity, temperature and depth


Average salinity of seawater
Average Salinity of Seawater water ______________ to life on Earth.

The average salinity of seawater is _______________.

  • This means that for every _______g of salts there is ______g of water.

  • _________: parts per thousand

  • _________: parts per hundred (percentage)

35 o/oo

35

1000

o/oo

o/o


What is the average percentage of dissolve solids in the ocean
What is the average water ______________ to life on Earth.percentage of dissolve solids in the ocean?

  • (Part over whole)

    _______ x 100 = %

  • Because ______ % is an average it can vary:

    • _______________ stay close to the average salinity.

    • _________________ tend to vary above and below the average salinity.

35

3.5

1000

3.5

Deep Waters

Surface Waters





Measuring salinity
Measuring Salinity water

  • The two ways to measure salinity:

    1.

    2.

  • Which way is more efficient? _____________________.

Evaporation

Conductivity

Conductivity


Measuring salinity1
Measuring Salinity water

  • It is important to measure salinity along with ________________ in order to track _________________.

  • Water does not stay in one place it will move due to changes in _______________.

temperature

ocean currents

density





What is the most abundant dissolved solid in seawater
What Is The Most Abundant Dissolved Solid In Seawater? water

  • Gold

  • Uranium

  • Sodium Chloride

  • Magnesium Sulfate


What is the average salinity of the oceans
What Is The Average Salinity Of The Oceans? water

  • 3.5%

  • 35 parts per 1000

  • 35%

  • 1 and 2

  • 1, 2, and 3



What drives surface currents
What Drives Surface Currents? water

  • Fish Swimming

  • Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature

  • Wind


What drives density currents
What Drives Density Currents? water

  • Fish Swimming

  • Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature

  • Wind


What is the least dense water
What Is The Least Dense Water? water

  • Hot, Fresh Water

  • Cold, Fresh Water

  • Room Temperature Fresh Water

  • Room Temperature Salt Water

  • Cold, Salty Water

  • Hot, Salty Water


What is the most dense water
What Is The Most Dense Water? water

  • Hot, Fresh Water

  • Cold, Fresh Water

  • Room Temperature Fresh Water

  • Room Temperature Salt Water

  • Cold, Salty Water

  • Hot, Salty Water


Demonstration
Demonstration water

  • Draw the test tube and label the layers I put in.


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