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Oceanography: Properties of Water. Density of Water. Density - ____________________________________________________________________ The equation for density is: D = ______. A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space. m. v. increases.

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density of water
Density of Water
  • Density - ____________________________________________________________________
  • The equation for density is: D = ______

A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space.

m

v

slide3

increases

  • In most substances the density _______________ as the substance loses energy and the temperature _______________.
  • As the phase changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid the density _______________.

decreases

increases

slide4

Gas

liquid

  • _______________ and _______________ water work this way. As they cool the particles get closer together and the density _________________.

increases

slide5
_______________ water (ice) is different. The density of ice is actually __________ than liquid water. This is because the structure of solid water is a ______________ that spreads the molecules apart. (see page 492)

Solid

less

**The density of liquid water is 1 g/cm3 and the density of solid water is .92 g/cm3

crystal lattice

slide6
This is what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

different

important

polarity of water
Polarity of Water

oxygen

  • Water is a _______________ molecule, which means that it has a ________ charge and a ________ charge.

polar

-

+

+ positive

+

- negative

hydrogen

slide8

Hydrogen

  • The polarity allows water to create ____________________ bonds between individual molecules. This is what makes water so _____________ and why water has such a high boiling point.

sticky

slide9

0° C

  • Water freezes at _________

Water boils at ___________

  • Liquid water exists between __________
  • This is also what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

100° C

0°-100° C

different

important

slide10

polarity

ions

  • Water’s _____________ also allows it to interact with other substances called _________.
  • ____________ increase the density of water and change the temperatures at which they freeze and boil.
    • When ions are dissolved in water

the boiling point ___________________

and the freezing point __________________

ions

Increases (~100.3°)

Decreases (~-2°)

why is water different than most other substances
Why Is Water Different Than Most Other Substances?
  • It is the only polar molecule known
  • It expands when turning into a solid
  • Its molecules get closer together when it condenses
why does water take so much energy to heat up
Why Does Water Take So Much Energy To Heat Up?
  • All of the molecules are bonded by hydrogen bonds
  • All of the molecules are bonded by covalent bonds
  • It is very dense
  • It doesn’t – it heats up faster than land
why do people put salt on streets when it snows
Why Do People Put Salt On Streets When It Snows?
  • It keeps the snow from falling on the streets
  • It makes the water on the streets freeze at a higher temperature
  • It makes the water on the streets freeze at a lower temperature
properties of ocean water
Properties of Ocean Water

> 70

  • _______ % of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans. The average depth of the ocean is more than ____________ greater than the average elevation on land.
  • Five Oceans

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

four times

Pacific

Atlantic

Indian

Arctic

Southern (Antarctic)

components of seawater the most common dissolved solids in seawater are
Sodium Chloride

Magnesium Sulfate

Calcium Sulfate

Na+Cl-

Mg2+SO42-

Ca2+SO42-

Components of SeawaterThe most common dissolved solids in seawater are:
components of seawater
Components of Seawater

Some other ions that are found in seawater are:

  • Carbonate CO3- (builds shells)
  • Gold Au+
  • Uranium U+
  • Bromine Br-
components of seawater1
Components of Seawater
  • The ion that is most abundant in seawater is ______________
  • Carbonate ( ) is a way that ____________ is stored in the ocean

chloride, Cl-

CO3-

carbon

salinity of seawater
Salinity of Seawater

Salinity

  • ____________ is a measurement of the dissolved ____________ in sea water.

Solids (salts)

CDT measures conductivity, temperature and depth

average salinity of seawater
Average Salinity of Seawater

The average salinity of seawater is _______________.

  • This means that for every _______g of salts there is ______g of water.
  • _________: parts per thousand
  • _________: parts per hundred (percentage)

35 o/oo

35

1000

o/oo

o/o

what is the average percentage of dissolve solids in the ocean
What is the average percentage of dissolve solids in the ocean?
  • (Part over whole)

_______ x 100 = %

  • Because ______ % is an average it can vary:
    • _______________ stay close to the average salinity.
    • _________________ tend to vary above and below the average salinity.

35

3.5

1000

3.5

Deep Waters

Surface Waters

measuring salinity
Measuring Salinity
  • The two ways to measure salinity:

1.

2.

  • Which way is more efficient? _____________________.

Evaporation

Conductivity

Conductivity

measuring salinity1
Measuring Salinity
  • It is important to measure salinity along with ________________ in order to track _________________.
  • Water does not stay in one place it will move due to changes in _______________.

temperature

ocean currents

density

what is the most abundant dissolved solid in seawater
What Is The Most Abundant Dissolved Solid In Seawater?
  • Gold
  • Uranium
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Magnesium Sulfate
what is the average salinity of the oceans
What Is The Average Salinity Of The Oceans?
  • 3.5%
  • 35 parts per 1000
  • 35%
  • 1 and 2
  • 1, 2, and 3
what drives surface currents
What Drives Surface Currents?
  • Fish Swimming
  • Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature
  • Wind
what drives density currents
What Drives Density Currents?
  • Fish Swimming
  • Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature
  • Wind
what is the least dense water
What Is The Least Dense Water?
  • Hot, Fresh Water
  • Cold, Fresh Water
  • Room Temperature Fresh Water
  • Room Temperature Salt Water
  • Cold, Salty Water
  • Hot, Salty Water
what is the most dense water
What Is The Most Dense Water?
  • Hot, Fresh Water
  • Cold, Fresh Water
  • Room Temperature Fresh Water
  • Room Temperature Salt Water
  • Cold, Salty Water
  • Hot, Salty Water
demonstration
Demonstration
  • Draw the test tube and label the layers I put in.
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