# Oceanography: Properties of Water - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Oceanography: Properties of Water. Density of Water. Density - ____________________________________________________________________ The equation for density is: D = ______. A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space. m. v. increases.

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Oceanography: Properties of Water

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## Oceanography: Properties of Water

### Density of Water

• Density - ____________________________________________________________________

• The equation for density is: D = ______

A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space.

m

v

increases

• In most substances the density _______________ as the substance loses energy and the temperature _______________.

• As the phase changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid the density _______________.

decreases

increases

Gas

liquid

• _______________ and _______________ water work this way. As they cool the particles get closer together and the density _________________.

increases

• _______________ water (ice) is different. The density of ice is actually __________ than liquid water. This is because the structure of solid water is a ______________ that spreads the molecules apart. (see page 492)

Solid

less

**The density of liquid water is 1 g/cm3 and the density of solid water is .92 g/cm3

crystal lattice

• This is what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

different

important

### Polarity of Water

oxygen

• Water is a _______________ molecule, which means that it has a ________ charge and a ________ charge.

polar

-

+

+ positive

+

- negative

hydrogen

Hydrogen

• The polarity allows water to create ____________________ bonds between individual molecules. This is what makes water so _____________ and why water has such a high boiling point.

sticky

0° C

• Water freezes at _________

Water boils at ___________

• Liquid water exists between __________

• This is also what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

100° C

0°-100° C

different

important

polarity

ions

• Water’s _____________ also allows it to interact with other substances called _________.

• ____________ increase the density of water and change the temperatures at which they freeze and boil.

• When ions are dissolved in water

the boiling point ___________________

and the freezing point __________________

ions

Increases (~100.3°)

Decreases (~-2°)

### Why Is Water Different Than Most Other Substances?

• It is the only polar molecule known

• It expands when turning into a solid

• Its molecules get closer together when it condenses

### Why Does Water Take So Much Energy To Heat Up?

• All of the molecules are bonded by hydrogen bonds

• All of the molecules are bonded by covalent bonds

• It is very dense

• It doesn’t – it heats up faster than land

### Why Do People Put Salt On Streets When It Snows?

• It keeps the snow from falling on the streets

• It makes the water on the streets freeze at a higher temperature

• It makes the water on the streets freeze at a lower temperature

## Oceanography: Properties of Ocean Water

### Properties of Ocean Water

> 70

• _______ % of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans. The average depth of the ocean is more than ____________ greater than the average elevation on land.

• Five Oceans

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

four times

Pacific

Atlantic

Indian

Arctic

Southern (Antarctic)

Sodium Chloride

Magnesium Sulfate

Calcium Sulfate

Na+Cl-

Mg2+SO42-

Ca2+SO42-

### Components of Seawater

Some other ions that are found in seawater are:

• Carbonate CO3- (builds shells)

• Gold Au+

• Uranium U+

• Bromine Br-

### Components of Seawater

• The ion that is most abundant in seawater is ______________

• Carbonate ( ) is a way that ____________ is stored in the ocean

chloride, Cl-

CO3-

carbon

### Salinity of Seawater

Salinity

• ____________ is a measurement of the dissolved ____________ in sea water.

Solids (salts)

CDT measures conductivity, temperature and depth

### Average Salinity of Seawater

The average salinity of seawater is _______________.

• This means that for every _______g of salts there is ______g of water.

• _________: parts per thousand

• _________: parts per hundred (percentage)

35 o/oo

35

1000

o/oo

o/o

### What is the average percentage of dissolve solids in the ocean?

• (Part over whole)

_______ x 100 = %

• Because ______ % is an average it can vary:

• _______________ stay close to the average salinity.

• _________________ tend to vary above and below the average salinity.

35

3.5

1000

3.5

Deep Waters

Surface Waters

### Measuring Salinity

• The two ways to measure salinity:

1.

2.

• Which way is more efficient? _____________________.

Evaporation

Conductivity

Conductivity

### Measuring Salinity

• It is important to measure salinity along with ________________ in order to track _________________.

• Water does not stay in one place it will move due to changes in _______________.

temperature

ocean currents

density

• 70%

• 30%

• 90%

• 50%

• 1%

• 100%

### What Is The Most Abundant Dissolved Solid In Seawater?

• Gold

• Uranium

• Sodium Chloride

• Magnesium Sulfate

### What Is The Average Salinity Of The Oceans?

• 3.5%

• 35 parts per 1000

• 35%

• 1 and 2

• 1, 2, and 3

### Which Part Of The Ocean Has A More Stable Salinity?

• Shallow Water

• Deep Water

### What Drives Surface Currents?

• Fish Swimming

• Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature

• Wind

### What Drives Density Currents?

• Fish Swimming

• Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature

• Wind

### What Is The Least Dense Water?

• Hot, Fresh Water

• Cold, Fresh Water

• Room Temperature Fresh Water

• Room Temperature Salt Water

• Cold, Salty Water

• Hot, Salty Water

### What Is The Most Dense Water?

• Hot, Fresh Water

• Cold, Fresh Water

• Room Temperature Fresh Water

• Room Temperature Salt Water

• Cold, Salty Water

• Hot, Salty Water

### Demonstration

• Draw the test tube and label the layers I put in.