Oceanography properties of water
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Oceanography: Properties of Water. Density of Water. Density - ____________________________________________________________________ The equation for density is: D = ______. A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space. m. v. increases.

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Oceanography: Properties of Water

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Oceanography: Properties of Water


Density of Water

  • Density - ____________________________________________________________________

  • The equation for density is: D = ______

A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space.

m

v


increases

  • In most substances the density _______________ as the substance loses energy and the temperature _______________.

  • As the phase changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid the density _______________.

decreases

increases


Gas

liquid

  • _______________ and _______________ water work this way. As they cool the particles get closer together and the density _________________.

increases


  • _______________ water (ice) is different. The density of ice is actually __________ than liquid water. This is because the structure of solid water is a ______________ that spreads the molecules apart. (see page 492)

Solid

less

**The density of liquid water is 1 g/cm3 and the density of solid water is .92 g/cm3

crystal lattice


  • This is what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

different

important


Polarity of Water

oxygen

  • Water is a _______________ molecule, which means that it has a ________ charge and a ________ charge.

polar

-

+

+ positive

+

- negative

hydrogen


Hydrogen

  • The polarity allows water to create ____________________ bonds between individual molecules. This is what makes water so _____________ and why water has such a high boiling point.

sticky


0° C

  • Water freezes at _________

    Water boils at ___________

  • Liquid water exists between __________

  • This is also what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

100° C

0°-100° C

different

important


polarity

ions

  • Water’s _____________ also allows it to interact with other substances called _________.

  • ____________ increase the density of water and change the temperatures at which they freeze and boil.

    • When ions are dissolved in water

      the boiling point ___________________

      and the freezing point __________________

ions

Increases (~100.3°)

Decreases (~-2°)


Why Is Water Different Than Most Other Substances?

  • It is the only polar molecule known

  • It expands when turning into a solid

  • Its molecules get closer together when it condenses


Why Does Water Take So Much Energy To Heat Up?

  • All of the molecules are bonded by hydrogen bonds

  • All of the molecules are bonded by covalent bonds

  • It is very dense

  • It doesn’t – it heats up faster than land


Why Do People Put Salt On Streets When It Snows?

  • It keeps the snow from falling on the streets

  • It makes the water on the streets freeze at a higher temperature

  • It makes the water on the streets freeze at a lower temperature


Oceanography: Properties of Ocean Water


Average Depth of Ocean vs. Average Elevation of Land(Draw What You See…)


Properties of Ocean Water

> 70

  • _______ % of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans. The average depth of the ocean is more than ____________ greater than the average elevation on land.

  • Five Oceans

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

four times

Pacific

Atlantic

Indian

Arctic

Southern (Antarctic)


Sodium Chloride

Magnesium Sulfate

Calcium Sulfate

Na+Cl-

Mg2+SO42-

Ca2+SO42-

Components of SeawaterThe most common dissolved solids in seawater are:


Components of Seawater

Some other ions that are found in seawater are:

  • Carbonate CO3- (builds shells)

  • Gold Au+

  • Uranium U+

  • Bromine Br-


Components of Seawater

  • The ion that is most abundant in seawater is ______________

  • Carbonate ( ) is a way that ____________ is stored in the ocean

chloride, Cl-

CO3-

carbon


Salinity of Seawater

Salinity

  • ____________ is a measurement of the dissolved ____________ in sea water.

Solids (salts)

CDT measures conductivity, temperature and depth


Average Salinity of Seawater

The average salinity of seawater is _______________.

  • This means that for every _______g of salts there is ______g of water.

  • _________: parts per thousand

  • _________: parts per hundred (percentage)

35 o/oo

35

1000

o/oo

o/o


What is the average percentage of dissolve solids in the ocean?

  • (Part over whole)

    _______ x 100 = %

  • Because ______ % is an average it can vary:

    • _______________ stay close to the average salinity.

    • _________________ tend to vary above and below the average salinity.

35

3.5

1000

3.5

Deep Waters

Surface Waters


Examples of variations at the upper (surface) levels of water


Examples of variations at the upper (surface) levels of water


Examples of variations at the upper (surface) levels of water


Measuring Salinity

  • The two ways to measure salinity:

    1.

    2.

  • Which way is more efficient? _____________________.

Evaporation

Conductivity

Conductivity


Measuring Salinity

  • It is important to measure salinity along with ________________ in order to track _________________.

  • Water does not stay in one place it will move due to changes in _______________.

temperature

ocean currents

density


Changes in Density


Changes in Density


What Percentage Of The Earth’s Surface Is Ocean?

  • 70%

  • 30%

  • 90%

  • 50%

  • 1%

  • 100%


What Is The Most Abundant Dissolved Solid In Seawater?

  • Gold

  • Uranium

  • Sodium Chloride

  • Magnesium Sulfate


What Is The Average Salinity Of The Oceans?

  • 3.5%

  • 35 parts per 1000

  • 35%

  • 1 and 2

  • 1, 2, and 3


Which Part Of The Ocean Has A More Stable Salinity?

  • Shallow Water

  • Deep Water


What Drives Surface Currents?

  • Fish Swimming

  • Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature

  • Wind


What Drives Density Currents?

  • Fish Swimming

  • Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature

  • Wind


What Is The Least Dense Water?

  • Hot, Fresh Water

  • Cold, Fresh Water

  • Room Temperature Fresh Water

  • Room Temperature Salt Water

  • Cold, Salty Water

  • Hot, Salty Water


What Is The Most Dense Water?

  • Hot, Fresh Water

  • Cold, Fresh Water

  • Room Temperature Fresh Water

  • Room Temperature Salt Water

  • Cold, Salty Water

  • Hot, Salty Water


Demonstration

  • Draw the test tube and label the layers I put in.


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