Oceanography: Properties of Water

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# Oceanography: Properties of Water - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Oceanography: Properties of Water. Density of Water. Density - ____________________________________________________________________ The equation for density is: D = ______. A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space. m. v. increases.

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### Oceanography: Properties of Water

Density of Water
• Density - ____________________________________________________________________
• The equation for density is: D = ______

A substances mass to volume ratio or how many molecules are packed into a space.

m

v

increases

• In most substances the density _______________ as the substance loses energy and the temperature _______________.
• As the phase changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid the density _______________.

decreases

increases

Gas

liquid

• _______________ and _______________ water work this way. As they cool the particles get closer together and the density _________________.

increases

_______________ water (ice) is different. The density of ice is actually __________ than liquid water. This is because the structure of solid water is a ______________ that spreads the molecules apart. (see page 492)

Solid

less

**The density of liquid water is 1 g/cm3 and the density of solid water is .92 g/cm3

crystal lattice

This is what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

different

important

Polarity of Water

oxygen

• Water is a _______________ molecule, which means that it has a ________ charge and a ________ charge.

polar

-

+

+ positive

+

- negative

hydrogen

Hydrogen

• The polarity allows water to create ____________________ bonds between individual molecules. This is what makes water so _____________ and why water has such a high boiling point.

sticky

0° C

• Water freezes at _________

Water boils at ___________

• Liquid water exists between __________
• This is also what makes water so ______________ and what makes water ______________ to life on Earth.

100° C

0°-100° C

different

important

polarity

ions

• Water’s _____________ also allows it to interact with other substances called _________.
• ____________ increase the density of water and change the temperatures at which they freeze and boil.
• When ions are dissolved in water

the boiling point ___________________

and the freezing point __________________

ions

Increases (~100.3°)

Decreases (~-2°)

Why Is Water Different Than Most Other Substances?
• It is the only polar molecule known
• It expands when turning into a solid
• Its molecules get closer together when it condenses
Why Does Water Take So Much Energy To Heat Up?
• All of the molecules are bonded by hydrogen bonds
• All of the molecules are bonded by covalent bonds
• It is very dense
• It doesn’t – it heats up faster than land
Why Do People Put Salt On Streets When It Snows?
• It keeps the snow from falling on the streets
• It makes the water on the streets freeze at a higher temperature
• It makes the water on the streets freeze at a lower temperature

### Oceanography: Properties of Ocean Water

Properties of Ocean Water

> 70

• _______ % of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans. The average depth of the ocean is more than ____________ greater than the average elevation on land.
• Five Oceans

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

four times

Pacific

Atlantic

Indian

Arctic

Southern (Antarctic)

Sodium Chloride

Magnesium Sulfate

Calcium Sulfate

Na+Cl-

Mg2+SO42-

Ca2+SO42-

Components of Seawater

Some other ions that are found in seawater are:

• Carbonate CO3- (builds shells)
• Gold Au+
• Uranium U+
• Bromine Br-
Components of Seawater
• The ion that is most abundant in seawater is ______________
• Carbonate ( ) is a way that ____________ is stored in the ocean

chloride, Cl-

CO3-

carbon

Salinity of Seawater

Salinity

• ____________ is a measurement of the dissolved ____________ in sea water.

Solids (salts)

CDT measures conductivity, temperature and depth

Average Salinity of Seawater

The average salinity of seawater is _______________.

• This means that for every _______g of salts there is ______g of water.
• _________: parts per thousand
• _________: parts per hundred (percentage)

35 o/oo

35

1000

o/oo

o/o

• (Part over whole)

_______ x 100 = %

• Because ______ % is an average it can vary:
• _______________ stay close to the average salinity.
• _________________ tend to vary above and below the average salinity.

35

3.5

1000

3.5

Deep Waters

Surface Waters

Measuring Salinity
• The two ways to measure salinity:

1.

2.

• Which way is more efficient? _____________________.

Evaporation

Conductivity

Conductivity

Measuring Salinity
• It is important to measure salinity along with ________________ in order to track _________________.
• Water does not stay in one place it will move due to changes in _______________.

temperature

ocean currents

density

What Is The Most Abundant Dissolved Solid In Seawater?
• Gold
• Uranium
• Sodium Chloride
• Magnesium Sulfate
What Is The Average Salinity Of The Oceans?
• 3.5%
• 35 parts per 1000
• 35%
• 1 and 2
• 1, 2, and 3
What Drives Surface Currents?
• Fish Swimming
• Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature
• Wind
What Drives Density Currents?
• Fish Swimming
• Differences In Density Due To Salinity and Temperature
• Wind
What Is The Least Dense Water?
• Hot, Fresh Water
• Cold, Fresh Water
• Room Temperature Fresh Water
• Room Temperature Salt Water
• Cold, Salty Water
• Hot, Salty Water
What Is The Most Dense Water?
• Hot, Fresh Water
• Cold, Fresh Water
• Room Temperature Fresh Water
• Room Temperature Salt Water
• Cold, Salty Water
• Hot, Salty Water
Demonstration
• Draw the test tube and label the layers I put in.