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Planning and Managing the Project. 中国科学技术大学软件学院 孟宁. 2010年09月. Contents. 3.1 Tracking Progress 3.2 Project Personnel 3.3 Effort Estimation 3.4 Risk Management 3.5 The Project Plan 3.6 Process Models and Project Management. Chapter 3 Objectives. Tracking project progress

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planning and managing the project

Planning and Managing the Project





3.1 Tracking Progress

3.2 Project Personnel

3.3 Effort Estimation

3.4 Risk Management

3.5 The Project Plan

3.6 Process Models and Project Management

chapter 3 objectives
Chapter 3 Objectives
  • Tracking project progress
  • Project personnel and organization
  • Effort and schedule estimation
  • Risk management
  • Using process modeling with project planning
3 5 project plan project plan contents
3.5 Project Plan Project Plan Contents
  • project scope项目范围
    • 与客户的期望达成一致
  • project schedule项目进度
    • 进度可以用工作分解图表示。
  • project team organization项目团队组织结构
    • 列出了开发小组成员名单,及组织形式,每人的任务。该计划也包含资源分配情况。
  • technical description of system系统的技术描述
    • 系统设计方案描述
  • project standards and procedures项目标准和流程
    • 算法、工具、设计语言、测试技术等
3 5 project plan project plan contents1
3.5 Project Plan Project Plan Contents
  • quality assurance plan质量保证计划
  • configuration management plan配置管理计划
  • documentation plan文档计划
  • data management plan数据管理计划
  • resource management plan资源管理计划
  • test plan测试计划
  • training plan培训计划
  • security plan安全计划
  • risk management plan风险管理计划
  • maintenance plan维护计划
3 5 project plan project plan lists
3.5 Project Plan Project Plan Lists
  • List of the people in development team
  • List of hardware and software
  • Standards and methods, such as
    • algorithms
    • tools
    • review or inspection techniques
    • design language or representaions
    • coding languages
    • testing techniques
review the previous lesson
Review the previous lesson
  • Tracking Progress
    • 项目进度问题
  • Project Personnel
    • 人力资源及组织建设
  • Effort Estimation
    • 工作量评估
  • Risk Management
    • 风险管理
  • The Project Plan
    • 项目计划
  • 项目概述
    • 粗线条的用例图或者网络拓扑结构图
  • 系统设计架构
    • 系统架构图
  • 功能模块分解
    • 任务分解图WBS,细化到自己能评估其工作量
  • 工作量评估
    • 任务列表及对应任务所需时间和其他资源
what is a project
What is a project?
  • 定义一:项目是完成某些特定指标的一次性任务。
  • 定义二:项目是一项有待完成的专门任务,是在一定的组织机构内,在限定的资源条件下,在计划的时间里,按满足一定性能、质量与数量的要求去完成的一次性任务。
  • 项目的特征
    • 唯一性
    • 一次性
    • 整体性
    • 多目标性
    • 寿命周期阶段性
what is project management
What is project management
  • Project Management --The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations.
  • 两种含义
    • 管理活动:一种有意识地按照项目管理的特点和规律,对项目进行组织管理的活动
    • 管理学科:以项目管理活动为研究对象的一门学科,它是探索项目活动科学组织管理的理论与方法。
  • 软件项目管理是为了使软件项目能够按照预定的成本、进度、质量顺利完成,而对成本、人员、进度、质量、风险等进行分析和管理的活动。
  • 软件项目管理的对象是软件工程项目,他所涉及的范围覆盖了整个软件工程过程。
  • 有效的项目管理集中于三个P上:
    • People
      • 项目参与者
      • 项目负责人
      • 软件项目组
      • 协调和通讯
    • Problem
      • 软件范围
      • 问题分解
    • Process
      • 合并问题和过程
      • 过程分解
project management
Project Management
  • Managers most successful at building quality products on time and within budget are those who tailor the project management techniques to the particular characteristics of the resources needed,the chosen process, and the people assigned.
  • the merging of process and project management
3 6 process models and project management enrollment management model digital alpha axp
3.6 Process Models and ProjectManagementEnrollment Management Model: Digital Alpha AXP
  • Establish an appropriately large shared vision
  • Delegate completely and elicit specific commitments from participants
  • Inspect vigorously and provide supportive feedback
  • Acknowledge every advance and learn as the program progresses
vision enrollment
Vision & Enrollment
  • shared common goals
    • Each group and subgroup of the project defined its own objectives in terms of the global ones stated for the project
    • include the company\'s business goals
commitment delegation
Commitment & Delegation
  • as managers developed plans
  • they delegated tasks to groups,soliciting(请求)comments and commitments about the content of each task and the schedule constraints imposed.
  • Each required result was measurable and identified with a particular owner who was held accountable for delivery.
  • the owner may not have been the person doing the actual work;rather,he or she was the person responsible for getting the work done.

Trust - Accountability - (task-owner-date)

inspection support
Inspection & Support
  • Managers continually inspected the project to make sure that delivery would be on time.
  • identify risks,when a risk threatened to keep the team from meeting its commitments,
  • make substantial changes to help move the project forward.
acknowledgment learning
Acknowledgment & learning
  • For each project step,the managers acknowledged progress both personally and publicly.
  • They recorded what had been learned and they asked team members how things could be improved the next time.
technical and project events
technical and project events
  • Managers had to oversee both technical and project events.
    • the technical focus involved technical design and strategy
    • the project focus addressed commitments and deliverables
one page description
One-page description
  • The plan was restricted to a single page,so that the participants could see the "big picture",without complexity or detail.
  • one-page descriptions of designs,schedule,and other key items enabled project participants to have a global picture of what to do,and when and how to do it.
itemizing key points of a one page report
Itemizing key points of a one-page report
  • Schedule
  • milestones
  • issues and dependencies resolved
  • issues and dependencies not resolved(with ownership and due dates)
  • critical-path events in the past month
  • activities along the critical path in the next month
motivated more by recognition than money
motivated more by recognition than money
  • engineers are usually motivated more by recognition than by financial gain.
  • Instead of rewarding participants with money,
  • they focused on announcing progress and on making sure that public knew how much the managers appreciated the engineers\' work.
3 6 process models and project management accountability modeling lockheed martin
3.6 Process Models and ProjectManagementAccountability modeling: Lockheed Martin
  • Matrix organization
    • Each engineer belongs to a functional unit based on type of skill
  • Integrated product development team
    • Combines people from different functional units into interdisciplinary work unit
  • Each activity tracked using cost estimation, critical path analysis, schedule tracking
    • Earned value a common measure for progress
3 6 process models and project management accountability modeling lockheed martin continued1
Teams had multiple, overlapping activities

An activity map used to illustrate progress on each activity

3.6 Process Models and ProjectManagementAccountability modeling: Lockheed Martin (continued)
hand off model
hand-off model
  • accountability model tell nothing about coordination among different teams.
  • built software to catalog and track the hand-offs from one team to another,so that could understand who was waiting for action or products from them.
    • Trac ticket as a example
summary for accountabilty model
summary for accountabilty model
  • it provided a mechanism for communication and coordination
  • it encouraged risk management
    • especially by forcing team members to examine problems in review meetings.
  • it integrated progress reporting with problem solving.
3 6 process models and project management anchoring common milestones
3.6 Process Models and ProjectManagement Anchoring (Common) Milestones
  • Life cycle objectives
    • Objectives: Why is the system being developed?
    • Milestones and schedules: What will be done by when?
    • Responsibilities: Who is responsible for a function?
    • Approach: How will the job be done, technically and managerially?
    • Resources: How much of each resource is needed?
    • Feasibility: Can this be done, and is there a good business reason for doing it?
  • Life-cycle architecture: define the system and software architectures and address architectural choices and risks
  • Initial operational capability: readiness of software, deployment site, user training
  • 项目管理中的山与水
  • 稳步推进与系统平衡
  • 仁者乐山,智者乐水



3 7 what this chapter means for you
3.7 What this Chapter Means for You
  • Key concepts in project management
    • Project planning
    • Cost and schedule estimation
    • Risk management
    • Team Organization
  • Project planning involves input from all team members
  • Communication path grows as the size of the team increases and need to be taken into account when planning and estimating schedule


  • References
  • 软件工程 - 理论与实践(第四版 影印版) Software Engineering: Theory and Practice (Fourth Edition),Shari Lawrence Pfleeger,Joanne M. Atlee ,高等教育出版社
  • 软件工程 - 理论与实践(第四版) Software Engineering: Theory and Practice (Fourth Edition),Shari Lawrence Pfleeger,Joanne M. Atlee,杨卫东译,人民邮电出版社
  • 软件工程—实践者的研究方法(Software Engineering-A Practitioner’s Approach); (美) Roger S. Pressman 著; 机械工业出版社ISBN:7-111-07282-0