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Chymosin Lab. 1. Which variables influence enzyme performance in general? 2. With these variables in mind, hypothesize: What are the optimal conditions for the performance of chymosin? (Hint: you might investigate the normal conditions under which substances like chymosin are active).

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1. Which variables influence enzyme performance in general?

2. With these variables in mind, hypothesize: What are the optimal conditions for the performance of chymosin? (Hint: you might investigate the normal conditions under which substances like chymosin are active).

3. Briefly describe an investigation aimed at optimizing one variable in chymosin Performance.


Milk contains casein
Milk contains casein

  • Casein- German, Kase= cheese

  • Casein is an emulsifying protein

  • It is also a storage protein

  • Structurally similar to gluten (found in grains)


Cheese is made from curdled milk
Cheese is made from curdled milk

  • Rennet is added from the 4th stomach of a calf

  • Rennet contains chymosin

  • Chymosin is an enzyme which cuts casein


Enzymes
ENZYMES

  • They are protein catalysts

  • They speed up reactions inside cells

  • They are incredibly specific

  • They are incredibly efficient

  • -ase = “enzyme”


Chymosin is a protease
Chymosin is a protease

  • A protease is an enzyme which cuts proteins

  • Specifically, it is an aspartate protease

  • Has an aspartate residue at its active site

  • HIV-Protease 1 is also an aspartate protease





THE REACTION DIAGRAM reactions faster

Enzymes can dramatically lower the energy of activation for a reaction

no enzyme

with enzyme

E

a

E

Energy

a

reactants

products

Reaction Course

Note that the equilibrium of the reaction is unaffected

12


The stages of enzyme catalysis
The stages of enzyme catalysis reactions faster

  • Substrate(s) binding

  • Reaction of substrate to form product(s)

  • Release of products

  • The enzyme is ready to bind the next substrate

  • Enzymes are unchanged by the reactions they catalyze


Enzyme inhibition enzymes can be sped up or slowed down

Enzyme Inhibition- reactions faster Enzymes can be sped up or slowed down



Effects of temperature and ph
Effects of Temperature and pH reactions faster

Each enzyme has an optimal temperature in which it can function

Each enzyme has an optimal pH in which it can function

Tertiary structure can be radically altered by changes in pH


Optimal temperature for reactions faster

typical human enzyme

Optimal temperature for

enzyme of thermophilic

(heat-tolerant

bacteria)

Different enzymes work optimally at different pHs and temper-atures

Rate of reaction

40

0

20

60

80

100

Temperature (°C)

Optimal temperature for two enzymes

Optimal pH for pepsin

(stomach enzyme)

Optimal pH

for trypsin

(intestinal

enzyme)

Rate of reaction

2

3

6

7

9

10

0

1

4

5

8

pH

Optimal pH for two enzymes


1. Which variables influence enzyme performance in general? reactions faster

2. With these variables in mind, hypothesize: What are the optimal conditions for the performance of chymosin? (Hint: you might investigate the normal conditions under which substances like chymosin are active).

3. Briefly describe an investigation aimed at optimizing one variable in chymosin Performance.


b reactions faster

-

galactosidase

10


b reactions faster

-

galactosidase

H

O

2

galactose

lactose

b

-

galactosidase

glucose

(aka lactase in humans)

11


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