Download

Chymosin Lab






Advertisement
/ 18 []
Download Presentation
Comments
saoirse
From:
|  
(123) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 144 | Added:
Rate Presentation: 5 0
Description:
Chymosin Lab. 1. Which variables influence enzyme performance in general? 2. With these variables in mind, hypothesize: What are the optimal conditions for the performance of chymosin? (Hint: you might investigate the normal conditions under which substances like chymosin are active).
Chymosin Lab

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Chymosin labSlide 1

Chymosin Lab

Chymosin labSlide 2

1. Which variables influence enzyme performance in general?

2. With these variables in mind, hypothesize: What are the optimal conditions for the performance of chymosin? (Hint: you might investigate the normal conditions under which substances like chymosin are active).

3. Briefly describe an investigation aimed at optimizing one variable in chymosin Performance.

Milk contains caseinSlide 3

Milk contains casein

  • Casein- German, Kase= cheese

  • Casein is an emulsifying protein

  • It is also a storage protein

  • Structurally similar to gluten (found in grains)

Cheese is made from curdled milkSlide 4

Cheese is made from curdled milk

  • Rennet is added from the 4th stomach of a calf

  • Rennet contains chymosin

  • Chymosin is an enzyme which cuts casein

EnzymesSlide 5

ENZYMES

  • They are protein catalysts

  • They speed up reactions inside cells

  • They are incredibly specific

  • They are incredibly efficient

  • -ase = “enzyme”

Chymosin is a proteaseSlide 6

Chymosin is a protease

  • A protease is an enzyme which cuts proteins

  • Specifically, it is an aspartate protease

  • Has an aspartate residue at its active site

  • HIV-Protease 1 is also an aspartate protease

Enzymes make it easier for reactions to happenSlide 7

Enzymes make it easier for reactions to happen

Reactions can be exergonic yet slow they require activation energySlide 8

Reactions can be exergonic, yet slow- they require activation energy

Lowering the activation energy makes enzyme catalyzed reactions fasterSlide 9

Lowering the activation energy makes enzyme-catalyzed reactions faster

Chymosin labSlide 10

THE REACTION DIAGRAM

Enzymes can dramatically lower the energy of activation for a reaction

no enzyme

with enzyme

E

a

E

Energy

a

reactants

products

Reaction Course

Note that the equilibrium of the reaction is unaffected

12

The stages of enzyme catalysisSlide 11

The stages of enzyme catalysis

  • Substrate(s) binding

  • Reaction of substrate to form product(s)

  • Release of products

  • The enzyme is ready to bind the next substrate

  • Enzymes are unchanged by the reactions they catalyze

Enzyme inhibition enzymes can be sped up or slowed downSlide 12

Enzyme Inhibition- Enzymes can be sped up or slowed down

Protease inhibitors make enticing hiv drug candidatesSlide 13

Protease inhibitors make enticing HIV drug candidates

Effects of temperature and phSlide 14

Effects of Temperature and pH

Each enzyme has an optimal temperature in which it can function

Each enzyme has an optimal pH in which it can function

Tertiary structure can be radically altered by changes in pH

Chymosin labSlide 15

Optimal temperature for

typical human enzyme

Optimal temperature for

enzyme of thermophilic

(heat-tolerant

bacteria)

Different enzymes work optimally at different pHs and temper-atures

Rate of reaction

40

0

20

60

80

100

Temperature (°C)

Optimal temperature for two enzymes

Optimal pH for pepsin

(stomach enzyme)

Optimal pH

for trypsin

(intestinal

enzyme)

Rate of reaction

2

3

6

7

9

10

0

1

4

5

8

pH

Optimal pH for two enzymes

Chymosin labSlide 16

1. Which variables influence enzyme performance in general?

2. With these variables in mind, hypothesize: What are the optimal conditions for the performance of chymosin? (Hint: you might investigate the normal conditions under which substances like chymosin are active).

3. Briefly describe an investigation aimed at optimizing one variable in chymosin Performance.

Chymosin labSlide 17

b

-

galactosidase

10

Chymosin labSlide 18

b

-

galactosidase

H

O

2

galactose

lactose

b

-

galactosidase

glucose

(aka lactase in humans)

11


Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro