The metal nonmetal bond
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IONIC BONDING. The Metal – Nonmetal Bond. Lewis Dot Structures. A famous chemist named Lewis invented a symbol to show valence electrons. He used a dot next to the symbol to represent each valence electron. The dots are spread around the 4 sides. Each pair of dots Represents a bond.

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The Metal – Nonmetal Bond

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IONIC BONDING

The Metal – Nonmetal Bond


Lewis Dot Structures

  • A famous chemist named Lewis invented a symbol to show valence electrons. He used a dot next to the symbol to represent each valence electron. The dots are spread around the 4 sides.

  • Each pair of dots

    Represents a bond.


When a metal and nonmetal come together, a pair of electrons acts as a bond. They each become ions.


The Rules:

  • Metal first, nonmetal second

  • Nonmetal ion becomes ‘ide’

  • Metal is positive, nonmetal is negative

  • Charges must balance to zero

  • Formula uses a subscript to balance charges

  • Example: MgCl2 ; Na2O; NaCl


The sodium atom and chloride atom bond together as ions and form a new compound.


This is called an ionic bond.


Practice:


Answers:


Solutions

  • When ionic compounds are put in water, they dissolve into ions:


Examples:

OH-1 = hydroxide

NO3-1 = nitrate

PO4-3 = phosphate

SO4-2 = sulfate

*They behave

just like single atom

ions.

Polyatomic ions: are groups of atoms bonded together with a charge hence the name “poly” “atomic” “ions”.


Practice: Use polyatomic ions just like any other ion; But when you have more than one , use parentheses.

  • barium hydroxide=

  • Notice parentheses show multiple ions.


barium hydroxide= Ba OH

+2 -1

Ba(OH)2

+2 -1(2) = 0


  • strontium nitrate =


  • strontium nitrate = Sr NO3

    +2 -1

    strontium nitrate = Sr(NO3)2

    +2 + -1(2)


  • lithium phosphate = Li PO4

    +1 -3

    lithium phosphate Li3PO4

    +1(3) + -3 = 0


potassium sulfate


  • potassium sulfate = KSO4

    +1 -2

    potassium sulfate = K2SO4

    +1(2) + -2 = 0


Transition metals:Metals that have more than one possible charge:

  • Cobalt: Co+2, Co+3

  • Copper: Cu+, Cu+2

  • Iron: Fe+2, Fe+3

  • Lead: Pb+2, Pb+4

  • When writing the names, always use roman numerals to show the charge.


Examples:

  • Cobalt (II) Co+2, Cobalt (III) Co+3

  • Copper(I), Cu+, or Copper (II), Cu+2

  • Iron(II) Fe+2, or iron (III), Fe+3

  • Lead(II), Pb+2, or lead (IV), Pb+4

  • Each different charged ion behaves completely different than the other! The charges matter!


Practice!

Lead (IV) hydroxide


  • Lead(IV) hydroxide = Pb(OH)4


  • Copper (II) nitrate


  • Copper(II) nitrate = Cu(NO3)2

    +2 -1


  • CoPO4


  • CoPO4 = Cobalt (III) phosphate

    +3 -3


  • Fe2(SO4)3


+3 -2

Iron (III) sulfate Fe2(SO4)3


Hydrates

Some ionic compounds absorb water molecules into their structures. These are called hydrates. NaCl•2H2O is the symbol for sodium chloride dihydrate. Notice the prefix di- means 2 water molecules.

Name these hydrates: MgSO4•5H2O

CuCl2•4H2O


Finding Percentage of Waterin a Hydrate

You can find the percentage of water in a hydrate by dividing the mass of the water by the total mass times 100.

Lets take NaCl•2H2O

Using the periodic table, the mass of Na=23, Cl=35.5, H2O = 18. Total mass with 2 H20 is 94.4

Water mass (36)/ Total (94.4) x 100

= 38 % water


Pop Quiz: HOT or NOT

  • Ionic Bonding….


HOT, for sure!

If Miley says it’s hot, it’s HOT!


Covalent Bonds

  • What is a Covalent Bond?

  • - A covalent bond is a chemical bond resulting from SHARING of electrons between 2 nonmetals.

  • ?


Covalent Bonds can have multiple bonds, so you should be familiar with the following…

Single Covalent Bond- chemical bond resulting from sharing of an electron pair between two atoms. H2O

Double Covalent Bond- chemical bond resulting from sharing of two electron pairs between two atoms. CO2

Triple Covalent Bond-chemical bond resulting from sharing of three electron pairs between two atoms. N2


Types of Covalent Bonds

  • Two types of colvalent bonds: nonpolar and polar

  • Recall electronegativity (desire for electrons) -see shaded table on ole yeller

  • The electronegativity difference between the two atoms determines whether it is a nonpolar or polar bond.

    Electronegativity difference:

    0 .4 2.0

    Nonpolar PolarIonic


Polar Bonds

A nonpolar bond tends to share electrons equally

A polar bond means there is a dipole or one pole (end) with a positive charge and one pole (end) with a negative charge, therefore they tend to stick together better since their opposite charges attract. (=)(-)

Very strong polar bonds are

ionic bonds like NaCl


Covalent Bonds Do NOT have ions or need to Balance Charges

  • They use prefixes to show the number of atoms:

  • Mono-

  • Di-

  • Tri-

  • Tetra-

  • Examples:

  • H2O =

    dihydrogen monoxide

  • CO2 = carbon dioxide

  • dinitrogen tetraoxide = N2O4

  • Phosphorus trichloride = PCl3


What are the differences between ionic bonding and covalent bonding? List them below:


Differences:

Ionic

  • Metal , nonmetal-ide

  • Balance charges using subscripts

  • Polyatomic ions use parentheses in multiples

  • Transition metals use roman numerals to show charge


Differences:

Covalent

  • Two nonmetals

  • Nonmetal, nonmetal-ide

  • No ions- they share e-

  • Use prefixes

  • Don’t need to balance


Differences:

Ionic

  • Metal , nonmetal-ide

  • Balance charges using subscripts

  • Polyatomic ions use parentheses in multiples

  • Transition metals use roman numerals to show charge

Covalent

  • Two nonmetals

  • Nonmetal, nonmetal-ide

  • No ions- they share e-

  • Use prefixes

  • Don’t need to balance


Covalent bonds: HOT or NOT?


Definitely HOT Baby!


The End!


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