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IONIC BONDING. The Metal – Nonmetal Bond. Lewis Dot Structures. A famous chemist named Lewis invented a symbol to show valence electrons. He used a dot next to the symbol to represent each valence electron. The dots are spread around the 4 sides. Each pair of dots Represents a bond.

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the metal nonmetal bond

IONIC BONDING

The Metal – Nonmetal Bond

lewis dot structures
Lewis Dot Structures
  • A famous chemist named Lewis invented a symbol to show valence electrons. He used a dot next to the symbol to represent each valence electron. The dots are spread around the 4 sides.
  • Each pair of dots

Represents a bond.

the rules
The Rules:
  • Metal first, nonmetal second
  • Nonmetal ion becomes ‘ide’
  • Metal is positive, nonmetal is negative
  • Charges must balance to zero
  • Formula uses a subscript to balance charges
  • Example: MgCl2 ; Na2O; NaCl
solutions
Solutions
  • When ionic compounds are put in water, they dissolve into ions:
polyatomic ions are groups of atoms bonded together with a charge hence the name poly atomic ions
Examples:

OH-1 = hydroxide

NO3-1 = nitrate

PO4-3 = phosphate

SO4-2 = sulfate

*They behave

just like single atom

ions.

Polyatomic ions: are groups of atoms bonded together with a charge hence the name “poly” “atomic” “ions”.
slide11
Practice: Use polyatomic ions just like any other ion; But when you have more than one , use parentheses.
  • barium hydroxide=
  • Notice parentheses show multiple ions.
slide12

barium hydroxide= Ba OH

+2 -1

Ba(OH)2

+2 -1(2) = 0

slide14

strontium nitrate = Sr NO3

+2 -1

strontium nitrate = Sr(NO3)2

+2 + -1(2)

slide15

lithium phosphate = Li PO4

+1 -3

lithium phosphate Li3PO4

+1(3) + -3 = 0

slide17

potassium sulfate = KSO4

+1 -2

potassium sulfate = K2SO4

+1(2) + -2 = 0

transition metals metals that have more than one possible charge
Transition metals:Metals that have more than one possible charge:
  • Cobalt: Co+2, Co+3
  • Copper: Cu+, Cu+2
  • Iron: Fe+2, Fe+3
  • Lead: Pb+2, Pb+4
  • When writing the names, always use roman numerals to show the charge.
examples
Examples:
  • Cobalt (II) Co+2, Cobalt (III) Co+3
  • Copper(I), Cu+, or Copper (II), Cu+2
  • Iron(II) Fe+2, or iron (III), Fe+3
  • Lead(II), Pb+2, or lead (IV), Pb+4
  • Each different charged ion behaves completely different than the other! The charges matter!
practice1

Practice!

Lead (IV) hydroxide

slide27

+3 -2

Iron (III) sulfate Fe2(SO4)3

hydrates
Hydrates

Some ionic compounds absorb water molecules into their structures. These are called hydrates. NaCl•2H2O is the symbol for sodium chloride dihydrate. Notice the prefix di- means 2 water molecules.

Name these hydrates: MgSO4•5H2O

CuCl2•4H2O

finding percentage of water in a hydrate
Finding Percentage of Waterin a Hydrate

You can find the percentage of water in a hydrate by dividing the mass of the water by the total mass times 100.

Lets take NaCl•2H2O

Using the periodic table, the mass of Na=23, Cl=35.5, H2O = 18. Total mass with 2 H20 is 94.4

Water mass (36)/ Total (94.4) x 100

= 38 % water

pop quiz hot or not
Pop Quiz: HOT or NOT
  • Ionic Bonding….
hot for sure
HOT, for sure!

If Miley says it’s hot, it’s HOT!

slide32

Covalent Bonds

  • What is a Covalent Bond?
  • - A covalent bond is a chemical bond resulting from SHARING of electrons between 2 nonmetals.
  • ?
slide33

Covalent Bonds can have multiple bonds, so you should be familiar with the following…

Single Covalent Bond- chemical bond resulting from sharing of an electron pair between two atoms. H2O

Double Covalent Bond- chemical bond resulting from sharing of two electron pairs between two atoms. CO2

Triple Covalent Bond-chemical bond resulting from sharing of three electron pairs between two atoms. N2

types of covalent bonds
Types of Covalent Bonds
  • Two types of colvalent bonds: nonpolar and polar
  • Recall electronegativity (desire for electrons) -see shaded table on ole yeller
  • The electronegativity difference between the two atoms determines whether it is a nonpolar or polar bond.

Electronegativity difference:

0 .4 2.0

Nonpolar PolarIonic

polar bonds
Polar Bonds

A nonpolar bond tends to share electrons equally

A polar bond means there is a dipole or one pole (end) with a positive charge and one pole (end) with a negative charge, therefore they tend to stick together better since their opposite charges attract. (=)(-)

Very strong polar bonds are

ionic bonds like NaCl

covalent bonds do not have ions or need to balance charges
Covalent Bonds Do NOT have ions or need to Balance Charges
  • They use prefixes to show the number of atoms:
  • Mono-
  • Di-
  • Tri-
  • Tetra-
  • Examples:
  • H2O =

dihydrogen monoxide

  • CO2 = carbon dioxide
  • dinitrogen tetraoxide = N2O4
  • Phosphorus trichloride = PCl3
differences
Differences:

Ionic

  • Metal , nonmetal-ide
  • Balance charges using subscripts
  • Polyatomic ions use parentheses in multiples
  • Transition metals use roman numerals to show charge
differences1
Differences:

Covalent

  • Two nonmetals
  • Nonmetal, nonmetal-ide
  • No ions- they share e-
  • Use prefixes
  • Don’t need to balance
differences2
Differences:

Ionic

  • Metal , nonmetal-ide
  • Balance charges using subscripts
  • Polyatomic ions use parentheses in multiples
  • Transition metals use roman numerals to show charge

Covalent

  • Two nonmetals
  • Nonmetal, nonmetal-ide
  • No ions- they share e-
  • Use prefixes
  • Don’t need to balance
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