WNV Infection in Non-Human Vertebrates

WNV Infection in Non-Human Vertebrates PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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WNV Infection in Non-Human Vertebrates

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1. WNV Infection in Non-Human Vertebrates

2. Host Competence and Response

3. Avian Hosts for WNV Abundant experience with natural mortality Experimental inoculations to characterize viremia and clinical responses:

5. Impact on Bird Populations

6. Avian WNV Infections: Sparrows 107: infected and released 18: infected and caged 20: infected and released

8. Avian West Nile: Objectives Morbidity and mortality: free vs caged Contact transmission rate Persistence of virus? Decay of antibody over time Duration of protective immunity

9. Results: 3 year study Clinical responses first 2 weeks Free and not bothered: 8% Caged and bothered daily: 28%

10. Results: 3 year study Clinical responses first 2 weeks Free and not bothered: 8% Caged and bothered daily: 28% Contract transmission – all control birds remained seronegative for 3 years

11. Results: 3 year study Clinical responses first 2 weeks Free and not bothered: 8% Caged and bothered daily: 28% Contract transmission – all control birds remained seronegative for 3 years Persistent virus (PCR, VI) – not detected

12. Results: 3 year study Clinical responses first 2 weeks Free and not bothered: 8% Caged and bothered daily: 28% Contract transmission – all control birds remained seronegative for 3 years Persistent virus (PCR, VI) – not detected Challenged groups every 6 months – with one exception, sterilizing immunity through 36 months

13. Relative Change in Neutralizing Antibody Over 3 Years

14. Cross-flavivirus Immunity

15. Reptiles and WNV Russian lake frog Bull frog Green iguana Red-eared slider Florida garter snake

18. Mammalian Hosts for WNV Horses Cattle Sheep Goats Deer Dogs Cats Bats Pigs Squirrels Chipmunks Rabbits

20. Equine West Nile Virus Infections Well recognized and widespread natural infections Demand for vaccines provided abundant data on experimental infections

21. Mosquito-borne Transmission

23. Typical Equine WNV Viremia

25. WNV Vaccine Trials

26. Equine WN Fever Head tremors Muscle faciculations Reluctance to move Abnormal gait Weakness Mania

27. Summary: Equine West Nile Low level viremia – dead end hosts No evidence of virus shedding In the field: substantial subclinical disease Mortality rate in clinically affected: ~30% Several efficacious vaccines available

28. Ruminants and WNV Cattle Sheep Goats Llamas Alpacas

30. WNV viremia: cats (mosquito bite)?

31. Cats are carnivores

32. WNV viremia: dogs (mosquito bite)?

33. Effect of Immunosuppression: Dogs

34. What About Bats?

35. Clinical Disease in Bats

36. Bat WN: Field Study

38. Acknowledgements Nick Komar and Mike Bunning (CDC)? Paul Gordy Nicole Nemeth, April Davis, Max Teehee, Laura Austgen Aaron Brault (UC Davis)? Chris Huth, Luke Bass, JD LeClaire, Caleb Lund, Lane Dixon

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