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BIODIVERSITY. EXTINCTION: 40.000 pr. YEAR!?. IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT?!. WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY. Effect of climate on biodiversity. Disturbance and biodiversity. The VALUE of BIODIVERSITY. Bio-organizational hierarchy. Biosphere. Biosphere. landscapes. Communities.

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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY

  • EXTINCTION: 40.000 pr. YEAR!?

  • IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT?!

  • WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY

  • Effect of climate on biodiversity

  • Disturbance and biodiversity

  • The VALUE of BIODIVERSITY


Bio organizational hierarchy
Bio-organizational hierarchy

Biosphere

Biosphere

landscapes

Communities

Populations

Individual

  • Bioms, e.g. rainforest

  • Landscapes “Ecosystems”

  • Communities

  • SPECIES

  • Populations; breeding individuals

  • Individual

Fig. 4.2, p. 72


What is biodviresity
What is biodviresity

SPECIES RICHNESS = NUMBER OF SPECIES IN A GIVEN AREA (measurable & comparable)

TURNOVER OF SPECIES IN LANDSCAPES = LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY

NUMBER OF RARE OR ENDEMIC SPECIES

NUMBER OF SPECIES WITH FEW REALTIVES = ISOLATED LINAGES

DIFFRENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS WITHIN POPULATIONS (GENE DIVERSITY)


Biodiversity is not biological resources
BIODIVERSITY IS NOT BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

2 ISLANDS WITH DIFFERENT DIVERSITY

5 SPECIES

4 ARE

EDIBLE

30 SPECIES

NON

ARE EDIBLE

WHERE DO YOU WANT TO LIVE?


Potential resource species not useful today can be useful for humans in the future
POTENTIAL RESOURCESPECIES NOT USEFUL TODAY CAN BE USEFUL FOR HUMANS IN THE FUTURE


Biomes latitude and altitude elevation
Biomes: Latitude and Altitude Elevation

high

Alpine

Tundra

Elevation

Tropical

Forest

low

Tropical Forest

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Northern Coniferous Forest

Arctic Tundra

High

Temperature & Moisture Availability

Low

Montane

Coniferous

Forest

Deciduous

Forest

Temperature & Moisture availability

Fig. 6.18, p. 133


Biodiversity equator to the poles
Biodiversity: equator to the poles

200

1,000

Species diversity

100

100

0

10

60

40

20

0

60

30

0

60

80˚N

90˚N

30˚S

Latitude

Latitude

  • Latitude

Fig. 8.3, p. 175


Biodiversity elevation gradient
Biodiversity: elevation gradient

Species richness

agriculture

Low land ---- high land


Common latitude elevation gradient
Common: latitude & elevation gradient

  • Altitude

Temperature

Production

Growing season

  • Latitude


Increasing biodiversity
Increasing Biodiversity

  • Many physically diverse habitats

  • Landscape diversity

  • Short unfavorable seasons, tropical

  • Middle stages of ecological succession

  • Moderate environmental disturbance

  • AREA


Ecological succession communities in transition
Ecological Succession: Communities in Transition

  • Primary succession

  • Secondary succession

  • Pioneer species

  • Successional species


Primary succession species richness
Primary Succession & species richness

Exposed

rocks

Lichens

and mosses

Balsam fir,

paper birch, and

white spruce

climax community

Jack pine,

black spruce,

and aspen

Heath mat

Small herbs

and shrubs

Species richness

biomass

time

Fig. 8.15, p. 188


Secondary succession species richness
Secondary Succession & species richness

Mature oak-hickory forest

Young pine forest

Shrubs

Perennial

weeds and

grasses

Annual

weeds

Species richness

biomass

time


Biodiversity succession
Biodiversity: succession

Number of species= species richness

Successional time


Biodiversity and biomass
Biodiversity and biomass

species richness

Increasing biomass


Biodiversity and disturbance disturbance reduced biomass
Biodiversity and disturbancedisturbance = reduced biomass

species richness

Increasing disturbance


Biodiversity succession and disturbance
Biodiversity, succession and disturbance

species richness

increasing biomass

increasing disturbance


Tropical forest are rich in species because of large area many strata
Tropical forest are rich in species because of large area + many strata

More strata=

more surface=

more species

  • Indirect: i.e., small plants growing in shade of larger plants


Community structure appearance and species diversity
Community Structure: Appearance and Species Diversity

100

30

20

50

10

ft

m

Tropical

rain forest

Coniferous

forest

Deciduous

forest

Thorn

forest

Thorn

scrub

Tall-grass

prairie

Short-grass

prairie

Desert

scrub

  • Stratification

  • Species richness


Specie area curve
Specie area curve

Log(area)

  • Log (species number)


Extinction estimate how did the 40 000 species pr year appear myers 1979
EXTINCTION estimate: how did the 40.000 species pr year appear? Myers 1979

>100 species pr. year including known and unknown species

guess 1 million species extinct in 25 years = 40,ooo pr year

50 % reduction in rainforest leads 20 % reduction in species (Lovjoy 1980)


Vegetation
vegetation appear? Myers 1979


Origins of life
Origins of Life appear? Myers 1979

Chemical Evolution

(1 billion years)

Biological Evolution

(3.7 billion years)

Variety of

multicellular

organisms

form, first

in the seas

and later

on land

Formation

of the

earth’s

early

crust and

atmosphere

Large

organic

molecules

(biopolymers)

form in

the seas

Small

organic

molecules

form in

the seas

First

protocells

form in

the seas

Single-cell

prokaryotes

form in

the seas

Single-cell

eukaryotes

form in

the seas

  • Chemical evolution

  • Biological evolution


Key concepts
Key Concepts appear? Myers 1979

  • Origins of life

  • Evolutionary processes

  • Species formation

  • Species extinction


Species extinction
Species Extinction appear? Myers 1979

  • Local extinction

  • Regional extinction

  • Biological or total extinction

  • Ex-situ conservation

  • e.g. wild relatives of crop plants


Extinction
Extinction appear? Myers 1979

  • Background extinction

  • Mass extinction


Extinction rates
Extinction Rates appear? Myers 1979

Geological Periods

Carboniferous

Cretaceous

Devonian

Jurassic

Silurian

Triassic

Tertiary

Ordovician

Permian

Quaternary

Cambrian

Mass extinctions

800

600

?

400

200

0

570

505

438

360

286

208

144

65

0

408

245

2

Millions of years ago

  • Background (natural) rate of extinction

  • Massextinction

Number of families

of marine animals


Realistic figures
Realistic figures appear? Myers 1979

95 % of earlier species are extinct

1.6 million known species

10 to 80 million unknown species

Natural extinction 2 pr. 10 year

Known extinction 25 pr. 10 year

since 1600 AD

Extinction rate ca. 0.7 % , but since total number of species is unknown the percentage is not a good expression



Speciation
Speciation appear? Myers 1979

Adapted to cold

through heavier

fur, short ears,

short legs, short

nose. White fur

matches snow

for camouflage.

Northern

population

Arctic Fox

Spreads

northward

and

southward

and

separates

Different environmental

conditions lead to different

selective pressures and evolution

into two different species.

Early fox

population

Adapted to heat

through lightweight

fur and long ears,

legs, and nose, which

give off more heat.

Southern

population

Gray Fox

  • Speciation

  • Geographic isolation

  • Reproductive isolation

Fig. 5.8, p. 113


A thin layer of life in a big void app 20 km
A thin layer of life in a big void: appear? Myers 1979app. 20 km

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Vegetation and animals

Soil

Crust

Rock

core

Lithosphere

Mantle

Crust

(soil and rock)

Crust

Biosphere

(Living and dead

organisms)

Atmosphere

(air)

Hydrosphere

(water)

Lithosphere

(crust, top of upper mantle)

  • Biosphere

Diversity in the biospere is good and

’a must’ for evolution to continue


Why should we care about biodiversity1
Why Should We Care About Biodiversity? appear? Myers 1979

Value of Nature

Instrumental

Intrinsic

(human centered)

(species or

ecosystem

centered)

Nonutilitarian

Utilitarian

Goods

Existence

Ecological services

Aesthetic

Information

Bequest

Option

Recreation

  • Instrumental value

  • Intrinsic value


Nice mammals ugly creeps have all species equal value
Nice mammals & ugly creeps: appear? Myers 1979Have all species equal value?


Many small species and few big species
Many small species appear? Myers 1979and few big species

Why is it dangerous to be big?

Why is it safe to be small?

number

size


Reproductive patterns and survival
Reproductive Patterns and Survival appear? Myers 1979

r-Selected Species

K-Selected Species

cockroach

dandelion

elephant

saguaro

Many small offspring

Little or no parental care and protection of

offspring

Early reproductive age

Most offspring die before reaching

reproductive age

Small adults

Adapted to unstable climate and environmental

conditions

High population growth rate (r)

Population size fluctuates wildly above and below

carrying capacity (K)

Generalist niche

Low ability to compete

Early successional species

Fewer, larger offspring

High parental care and protection of offspring

Later reproductive age

Most offspring survive to reproductive age

Larger adults

Adapted to stable climate and environmental

conditions

Lower population growth rate (r)

Population size fairly stable and usually close

to carrying capacity (K)

Specialist niche

High ability to compete

Late successional species

  • r-selected species

  • Asexual reproduction

  • K-selected species

  • Sexual reproduction


Broad and narrow niches
Broad and Narrow Niches appear? Myers 1979

  • Generalist species

  • Specialist species


Endangered and threatened species
Endangered and Threatened Species appear? Myers 1979

Florida manatee

Northern spotted owl (threatened)

Gray wolf

Florida panther

Bannerman's turaco (Africa)

  • Endangered species

  • Threatened (vulnerable) species

  • Rare species

  • FLAGSHIP SPECIES, BIG MAMMALS & BIRDS

Fig. 22.7a, p. 556


Plante geografi
PLANTE GEOGRAFI appear? Myers 1979


Plante geografi1
PLANTE GEOGRAFI appear? Myers 1979

LOKALT SJELDEN

I UTKANTEN AV UTBREDELSE OMRÅDET

GLOBALT SJELDEN

SJELDEN NATURTYPE I NORGE= SAND DYNER STRENDER


Sjelden i norge silkenellik
Sjelden i Norge: Silkenellik appear? Myers 1979


I utkanten av utbredelses omr det
I UTKANTEN AV UTBREDELSES OMRÅDET appear? Myers 1979

Sodaurt


Plante geografi2
PLANTE GEOGRAFI appear? Myers 1979

SJELDEN NATURTYPE I NORGE

F. EKS SAND DYNER med fugle og plante liv


Causes of premature extinction of wild species
Causes of Premature Extinction of Wild Species appear? Myers 1979

Habitat

loss

Habitat

degradation

Overfishing

Basic Causes

Introducing

nonnative

species

Climate

change

  • Population growth

  • Rising resource use

  • No environmental accounting

  • Poverty

Commercial

hunting

and

poaching

Pollution

Sale of

exotic pets

and

decorative

plants

Predator

and

pest control

  • Habitat degradation

  • Introduction of non-native species

Fig. 22.13, p. 564


Why mountains are important
Why Mountains are important appear? Myers 1979

  • Mimic latitude

  • “Islands” = isolation=

    speciation = endemics


Greenhouse effect
Greenhouse Effect appear? Myers 1979

(a)

(b)

(c)

Rays of sunlight penetrate the lower atmosphere and warm the earth's surface.

The earth's surface absorbs much of the incoming solar radiation and degrades it to longer-wavelength infrared radiation (heat), which rises into the lower atmosphere. Some of this heat escapes into space and some is absorbed by molecules of greenhouse gases and emitted as infrared radiation, which warms the lower atmosphere.

As concentrations of greenhouse

gases rise, their molecules absorb and emit more infrared radiation, which adds more heat to the

lower atmosphere.

  • Greenhouse gases

Fig. 6.13, p. 128


Elevation gradient and climate change 1750 ad
Elevation gradient and climate change: 1750 AD appear? Myers 1979

No. of individuals

Temperatureniche

Alpine plant

  • 1000 m elevation

    = decrease 5 0C

20 10 0

0C


Elevation gradient and climate change 2100 ad 10 degrees
Elevation appear? Myers 1979 gradient and climate change: 2100 AD + 10 degrees

No. of individuals

Temperatureniche disappear

Alpine species goes locally extinct

30 20 10


Critical thinking
critical thinking appear? Myers 1979

Realised versus fundamnetal niche

Fundamental niche =

only climate

Realised niche

Biotic control

1750

2100

20 10 0

30 20 10


Land use in the world
Land Use in the World appear? Myers 1979

Cropland 11%

Urban 2%

Tundra and

wetlands 9%

Desert 20%

Rangeland

and pasture

26%

Forest

32%

Fig. 23.2, p. 586


Forest structure
Forest Structure appear? Myers 1979

Emergent

Birds,

invertebrates,

bats

Canopy

Birds,

reptiles,

amphibians,

lichens, mosses

Understory

Shade-tolerant

plants, birds,

squirrels,

lizards,

chipmunks

Snag

Floor

Rotting debris,

worms,

insects,

bacteria

Subsoil

Bole

Nematodes,

microrganisms


Symbiotic species interactions commensalism
Symbiotic Species Interactions: Commensalism appear? Myers 1979

  • Indirect: i.e., small plants growing in shade of larger plants

  • Direct: i.e., epiphytes, remoras


Endangered and threatened species1
Endangered and Threatened Species appear? Myers 1979

Florida manatee

Northern spotted owl (threatened)

Gray wolf

Florida panther

Bannerman's turaco (Africa)

  • Endangered species

  • Threatened (vulnerable) species

  • Rare species


Nuclear threat
Nuclear threat!!!! appear? Myers 1979

  • Mass extinction


Value of species
VALUE appear? Myers 1979of species


Extinction1
Extinction appear? Myers 1979

  • Background extinction

  • Mass extinction


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