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Numbers count. ACCURATE ACCURATE NOT Accurate PRECISE NOT precise PRECISE. Random errorsystematic error. Required math skills:. Add Subtract Multiply Divide Powers Logarithms. Orders of magnitude Estimation Units Conversions Powers of 10 Prefixes Errors Statistics.

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Numbers count

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Numbers count

Numbers count


Numbers count

ACCURATEACCURATENOT Accurate

PRECISENOT precisePRECISE

Random errorsystematic error


Required math skills

Required math skills:

  • Add

  • Subtract

  • Multiply

  • Divide

  • Powers

  • Logarithms


Numbers count

  • Orders of magnitude

  • Estimation

  • Units

  • Conversions

  • Powers of 10

  • Prefixes

  • Errors

  • Statistics


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Estimation and orders of magnitude:

How many piano tuners are there in Chicago?


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Estimation and orders of magnitude:

What is the national debt?


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Estimation and orders of magnitude:

What is the world population?


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Estimation and orders of magnitude:

How many water molecules in 1000 droplets?


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Estimation and orders of magnitude:

A cube – 1” on a side  (2.6)3 cm3 ~ 18 cc

18 cc = 18 cc (1 g/1 cc) = 18 g

18 g = 18 g (1 molecule/ (18 x 1.66x10-24 g)) =

6.022 x 1023 molecules


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Estimation and orders of magnitude: powers of 10


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Chemical concentrations

Molarity = Moles of solute/Liters of Solution (M)

Molality = Moles of solute/Kg of Solvent (m)

Mole Fraction= Moles solute/total number of moles

Mass % = Mass solute/total mass x 100

Volume % = volume solute/total volume x 100

ppm = parts per million *

ppb = parts per billion *

* mass for solutions, volume for gasses


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Chemical concentrations

Molarity = Moles of solute/Liters of Solution (M)

Molality = Moles of solute/Kg of Solvent (m)

Mole Fraction= Moles solute/total number of moles

Mass % = Mass solute/total mass x 100

Volume % = volume solute/total volume x 100

ppm = parts per million *

ppb = parts per billion *

* mass for solutions, volume for gasses


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Chemical concentrations

Molarity = Moles of solute/Liters of Solution (M)

Molality = Moles of solute/Kg of Solvent (m)

Mole Fraction= Moles solute/total number of moles

Mass % = Mass solute/total mass x 100

Volume % = volume solute/total volume x 100

ppm = parts per million *

ppb = parts per billion *

* mass for solutions, volume for gasses


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A sample of NaNO3 weighing 8.50 grams is placed in a 500. ml volumetric flask and distilled water was added to the mark on the neck of the flask. Calculate the Molarity of the resulting solution.


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A sample of NaNO3 weighing 8.50 grams is placed in a 500. ml volumetric flask and distilled water was added to the mark on the neck of the flask. Calculate the Molarity of the resulting solution.

1. Convert the given grams of solute to moles of solute :

2. Convert given ml of solution to liters

3. Apply the definition for Molarity:

Molarity = moles NaNO3 / volume of the solution in liters


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Chemical concentrations

Molarity = Moles of solute/Liters of Solution (M)

Molality = Moles of solute/Kg of Solvent (m)

Mole Fraction= Moles solute/total number of moles

Mass % = Mass solute/total mass x 100

Volume % = volume solute/total volume x 100

ppm = parts per million *

ppb = parts per billion *

* mass for solutions, volume for gasses


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Determine the molality of 3000. grams of solution containing 37.3 grams of Potassium Chloride KCl.

1. Convert grams KCl to moles KCl

2. Determine the mass of pure solvent from the given grams of solution and solute


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Determine the molality of 3000. grams of solution containing 37.3 grams of Potassium Chloride KCl.

1. Convert grams KCl to moles KCl

2. Determine the mass of pure solvent from the given grams of solution and solute

Total grams = 3000 grams = Mass of solute + Mass of solvent  Mass of pure solvent = (3000 - 37.3) gram = 2962.7 gram


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.

3. Convert grams of solvent to kilograms

4. Apply the definition for molality


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Chemical concentrations

Molarity = Moles of solute/Liters of Solution (M)

Molality = Moles of solute/Kg of Solvent (m)

Mole Fraction = Moles solute/total number of moles

Mass % = Mass solute/total mass x 100

Volume % = volume solute/total volume x 100

ppm = parts per million *

ppb = parts per billion *

* mass for solutions, volume for gasses


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Determine the mole fraction of KCl in 3000. grams of solution containing 37.3 grams of Potassium Chloride KCl.

1. Convert grams KCl to moles KCl

2. Determine the mass of pure solvent from the given grams of solution and solute

Total grams = 3000 grams = Mass of solute + Mass of solvent

 Mass of pure solvent = (3000 - 37.3) gram = 2962.7 gram


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3. Convert grams of solvent H2O to mols

4. Apply the definition for mole fraction mole fraction =


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Chemical concentrations

Molarity = Moles of solute/Liters of Solution (M)

Molality = Moles of solute/Kg of Solvent (m)

Mole Fraction= Moles solute/total number of moles

Mass % = Mass solute/total mass x 100

Volume % = volume solute/total volume x 100

ppm = parts per million *

ppb = parts per billion *

* mass for solutions, volume for gasses


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Determine the mass % of a NaCl solution if 58.5 grams of NaCl was dissolved in 50 ml of water (assume the density of water to be 1 g/ml)

1. Convert ml of water to grams

2. Determine total mass of solution

Mass of solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent = 58.5 + 50 = 108.5 g

3. Apply the definition of mass percent mass % =

58.5 (100) / 108.5 = 53.9% NaCl


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Chemical concentrations

Molarity = Moles of solute/Liters of Solution (M)

Molality = Moles of solute/Kg of Solvent (m)

Mole Fraction= Moles solute/total number of moles

Mass % = Mass solute/total mass x 100

Volume % = volume solute/total volume x 100

ppm = parts per million *

ppb = parts per billion *

* mass for solutions, volume for gasses


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Assuming the density of water to be 1 g/mL we approximate the density of a dilute aqueous solution to be 1 g/mL

 1 ppm = 1 μg/mL = 1 mg/L

 1 ppb = 1 ng/mL = 1 μg/L


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Determine the ppm of a NaCl solution if 58.5 grams of NaCl was dissolved in 50.0 ml of water (assume the density of water to be 1 g/ml)

Convert ml of water to grams

Determine total mass of solution

Mass of solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent = 58.5 + 50.0 = 108.5 g

Apply the definition of ppm

58.5 (106) / 108.5 = 5.39 x 105ppmNaCl


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