Medical retina and macular diseases
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Medical Retina and Macular Diseases. Dr. Timothy Y. Y. Lai MBBS, MMedSc, MRCSEd, FCOphthHK, FHKAM(Ophth) Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Medical Retina.

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Medical retina and macular diseases

Medical Retina and Macular Diseases

Dr. Timothy Y. Y. Lai


Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Medical retina

Medical Retina

  • A specialty that deals with the investigation and non-surgical treatment of retinal disorders

  • Retinal diseases associated with systemic diseases

    • Diabetic Retinopathy

    • Hypertensive Retinopathy

  • Vascular retinopathies

  • Medical macular diseases

    • Age-related Macular Degeneration

Retinal diseases associated with systemic diseases

Retinal Diseases Associated with Systemic Diseases

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

  • One of the leading causes of blindness

  • Risk factors

    • Duration of diabetes

      • 80% of type I and 70% of type II diabetics have retinopathy after 15 yrs

    • Type of diabetes mellitus

    • Control of hyperglycemia

    • Hypertension

    • Associated renal disease

    • Pregnancy

Diabetic retinopathy1

Diabetic Retinopathy

  • Classification

    • Non-proliferative (NPDR)

      • Mild

      • Moderate

      • Severe

    • Proliferative (PDR)

Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy npdr

Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR)

  • Pathogenesis

    • Microvascular disease causing capillary damage

    • Leakage of blood constituents into the retina

      • Retinal hemorrhages

      • Retinal edema

      • Lipid exudation

Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy npdr1

Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR)

  • Dot and blot hemorrhage

  • Hard exudate

  • Cotton-wool spots

  • Venous beading

  • Venous loops

Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy npdr2

Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR)

Progression from npdr to pdr

Progression from NPDR to PDR

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy pdr

Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR)

  • Pathogenesis

    • Retinal ischemia causing neovascularization

  • May be asymptomatic if only neovascularization without hemorrhage

Medical retina and macular diseases

Neovascularization at Disc


Neovascularization elsewhere


Causes of visual loss in dr

Causes of Visual Loss in DR

  • Macular Edema

  • Complications of PDR

    • Vitreous hemorrhage

    • Fibrous tissue proliferation

    • Retinal detachment

Medical retina and macular diseases


Circinate exudate

Retinal edema

Medical retina and macular diseases

Vitreous Hemorrhage

Tractional Retinal Detachment


Retinal Detachment

Diabetic retinopathy2

Diabetic Retinopathy

  • Treatment

    • Laser photocoagulation

      • Focal or grid: for macular edema

      • Pan-retinal photocoagulation: for PDR

    • Control of systemic disease

      • Hyperglycemia

      • Hypertension

      • Renal disease

    • Vitreous surgery

Medical retina and macular diseases

Laser Photocoagulation

Outpatient procedure

Topical Anesthesia

Multiple Sessions

In PDR, laser should be performed before

vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment develops

Diabetic retinopathy3

Diabetic Retinopathy

  • Early identification of the disease and prompt referral to the ophthalmologist

  • Dilate your patients for examination with ophthalmoscope regularly

  • Prompt treatment reduces risk of visual loss by 50%

  • Patients may be asymptomatic but still have advanced PDR

Hypertensive retinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy

  • Focal or generalized narrowing of retinal arteries associated with hypertension

  • Clinical features

    • Cotton-wool spots

    • Hard exudates

    • Macular star

    • Macular edema

    • Retinal hemorrhage

    • Optic disc swelling

Hypertensive retinopathy1

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Severe hypertensive retinopathy

Severe Hypertensive Retinopathy

Macular star

Disc swelling

Hypertensive retinopathy2

Hypertensive Retinopathy

  • Management

    • Rule out secondary hypertension

    • Control of hypertension

Vascular retinopathies

Vascular Retinopathies

Retinal vascular occlusions

Retinal Vascular Occlusions

  • Venous occlusion more common than arterial occlusion

  • Pathogenesis

    • Arterial occlusion – embolus

      • Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO)

      • Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO)

    • Venous occlusion – abnormal blood flow

      • Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO)

      • Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO)

Retinal arterial occlusions

Retinal Arterial Occlusions

  • Symptoms

    • Sudden, painless, marked loss of vision

    • Immediate treatment within 24-48 hours may be beneficial in some patients

  • Systemic Associations

    • Cardiovascular disease

    • Carotid artery disease

    • Temporal arteritis / inflammatory arteritis

    • Coagulopathies

Medical retina and macular diseases

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Afferent Pupillary Defect

Cherry Red Spot

Retinal Edema

Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion

Retinal venous occlusions

Retinal Venous Occlusions

  • Symptoms

    • Sudden painless loss of vision

    • Various extent of visual loss

  • Systemic Associations

    • Diabetes Mellitus

    • Hypertension

    • Hematological diseases

    • Vasculitis

Medical retina and macular diseases

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

Medical retina and macular diseases

Neovascular glaucoma

Macular edema

Laser photocoagulation

Macular diseases

Macular Diseases

Where is the macula

Where is the macula?
















Optic nerve

Cilliary body


Medical retina and macular diseases



Macular diseases1

Macular Diseases

  • Common surgical macular diseases

    • Macular hole

    • Epiretinal membrane

  • Common medical macular diseases

    • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    • Myopic maculopathy

    • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)

Age related macular degeneration amd

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

  • Leading cause of severe vision loss in people > 50 years in the western world

  • Visual loss due to drusens / RPE degeneration or development choroidal neovascularization (CNV)

Age related macular degeneration amd1

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

  • Two forms

    • Dry (non-neovascular) AMD(80% to 90%)

    • Wet (neovascular) AMD(10% to 20%)

  • 90% of vision loss is caused by wet form of AMD

Symptoms of amd early

Symptoms of AMD – Early

Decrease in color and contrast sensitivity

Symptoms of amd intermediate

Symptoms of AMD – Intermediate

Impairment of central visual function

Symptoms of amd intermediate1

Symptoms of AMD – Intermediate


distortion of central image

Symptoms of amd late

Symptoms of AMD – Late

Central Scotoma

Hallmark of amd development of drusen

Hallmark of AMDDevelopment of Drusen



Early dry amd

Early Dry AMD

  • Asymptomatic

  • Examination reveals several small drusen or a few medium-sized drusen (63-124m)

Intermediate dry amd

Intermediate Dry AMD

  • Many medium-sized drusen or 1 large drusen (>125m)

  • Vision may be impaired

Advanced dry amd

Advanced Dry AMD

  • More severe visual impairment

  • Presence of drusen with degeneration of RPE

  • Geographic atrophy

Dry amd wet amd formation of new vessels

Dry AMD  Wet AMDFormation of New Vessels




  • Vision function testing

    • Visual acuity

    • Amsler grid

  • Ophthalmolscopy

  • Fluorescein angiography

Early diagnosis

Early Diagnosis

  • Amsler Grid

  • Adequate lighting

  • Wear reading glasses

  • Hold the Amsler grid at normal reading distance (about 30cm)

  • Cover one eye at a time

  • Stare at the center dot

  • Ask the following questions:

  • Are any of the lines wavy, missing, blurry, or discolored?

  • Are any of the boxes different in size or shape from the others?

5mm squares

10 cm x 10 cm

Self monitoring with amsler grid

Self monitoring with Amsler Grid

Normal Abnormal

Fluorescein angiography

Fluorescein angiography

Intravenous injection

Uptake of fluorescein dye at the site of abnormal vessels

- Size, Location, Activity

Management of amd

Management of AMD

  • Treatment for neovascular AMD

    • Laser photocoagulation

    • Submacular surgery

    • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Verteporfin

    • Anti-angiogenesis therapy (Anti-VEGF)

  • Prevent progression to advanced AMD

    • Antioxidants

    • Quit smoking

  • Low-vision aids

Laser photocoagulation

Laser Photocoagulation

  • Non-selective thermal laser photocoagulation

    • Destroy CNV

    • Irreversible damage to the overlying retina and RPE

    • Side effects of immediate scotoma or drop in central vision

    • CNV persist or recur in 50% of patients

Pdt with v erteporfin

PDT with Verteporfin

Step 2:

Nonthermal Laser


Step 1:


Mechanisms of action

Mechanisms of action

  • Chain of reactions  vessel thrombosis


Non-thermal Laser


Drug infusion

Medical retina and macular diseases


High dose areds supplements

High dose AREDS supplements

  • Beta-carotene

  • Vitamin A

  • Vitamin C

  • Vitamin E

  • Zinc

  • Copper

  • Decrease risk of progression from dry to wet AMD

Smoking and amd

Smoking and AMD

  • Most important risk factors for AMD

  • Smokers have 300% to 400% more risk in developing AMD than non-smokers

  • Even passive smoking increase the risk of AMD by 30% to 40%

Prevention is better than cure

Prevention is better than cure

  • Increasing prevalence of AMD due to aging and western life-style

  • Recognize and correct risk factors

    • Quit smoking

    • Healthy diet

  • Self screening testin high-risk group

  • Regular dilated fundus examination to evaluate AMD findings

    Early diagnosis is the key to save vision

Thank you

Thank You

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