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Invasive Species Awareness. Objectives. Define what is a weed, an invasive species and a noxious weed. Describe how and why invasive species are detrimental to public lands. Describe your responsibility as a employee in BLM’s weed management program. You will be able to:.

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Objectives

  • Define what is a weed, an invasive species and a noxious weed.

  • Describe how and why invasive species are detrimental to public lands.

  • Describe your responsibility as a employee in BLM’s weed management program.


You will be able to:

  • Explain why invasive management has become an “emergency” on public lands.

  • Identify actions that prevent the spread or promote the introduction of invasives.

  • Identify what you can do to help prevent the spread or introduction of invasives.


You will be able to:

  • Assist the invasive program by discussing informally invasive awareness and prevention measures with the public.

  • Explain:

    • what a weed is,

    • what an invasive species is, and

    • what a noxious weed is.


WEED

Any plant that interferes with management objectives.

  • May be:

    • native or non-native

    • noxious or non-noxious


Invasive species
INVASIVE SPECIES

  • A life form that aggressively spreads into and takes over a site.

  • May be:

    • native or non-native

    • noxious or non-noxious


What are invasive species
What are Invasive Species?

Include non-native or native

  • Plants,

  • Animals,

  • Insects,

  • Viruses,

  • Pathogens,

  • Parasites


Noxious weed
Noxious Weed

Plants designated by law as undesirable and requiring control.

Usually non-natives and highly invasive or poisonous.



Ecological Impacts

  • Disrupted ecological processes.

  • Displacednative species.

  • Polluted gene pools through hybridization.

  • Can introduce exotic diseases.


Economic impacts
Economic Impacts

  • cost of eradication or control.

  • reduced land values and crop yields.

  • reduced wildlife & livestock numbers.

  • competition of forest products.

  • aesthetic values reduced.

  • liabilities for allowing spread of weeds (litigation).


  • Of the 261 million acres managed by the BLM, over 35 million acres of public lands (an area the size of the State of Wisconsin) are infested with invasive and noxious weeds.

  • Weed invasion is considered the second most serious threat to natural habitats, after habitat fragmentation and loss (Randall, 1996)


Aquatic vegetation impacts to fish and recreation
Aquatic vegetation impacts to Fish and Recreation acres of public lands (an area the size of the State of Wisconsin) are infested with invasive and noxious weeds.

  • Giant Salvinia,

  • First reported in Palo Verde Irrigation District in California

  • Has moved into the Lower Colorado River below Lake Havasu, Arizona. Also found in Texas, North Carolina

  • Potential to impact critical habitat for Razorback Sucker.


Quagga mussels
Quagga acres of public lands (an area the size of the State of Wisconsin) are infested with invasive and noxious weeds. Mussels

  • Cousins of the Zebra mussel

  • Found in 2007 in Lake Mead National Recreation Area

  • Now found in parts of the Colorado River and its surrounding lakes -- such as Lake Havasu and Lake

  • Prevention measures to figure out now how to stop from entering into the California water system.

  • AZ & CA formulating a quagga control plan.

  • State checkpoints along the borders with Arizona and Nevada to stop and inspect boats being towed


Other impacts from invasive species on public lands west nile virus
Other impacts from Invasive Species on Public lands: West Nile Virus

  • Number of sage grouse known to have died from West Nile Virus in 2003

  • 19 in Wyoming

  • 3 in Montana

  • BLM currently gearing up for mosquito abatement this summer.


Sudden oak death
Sudden Oak Death Nile Virus

  • A plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, which can have devastating effects in the wildlands it inhabits and has had substantial impacts on the nursery industry

  • Found in California and Oregon.

  • Has killed hundreds of thousands of native oak trees.

  • Infects the leaves and twigs of common ornamental nursery plants, such as rhododendrons and camellias, which serve as vectors for pathogen dispersal.


Cactus moth
Cactus Moth Nile Virus

  • .

  • The invasive Cactoblastis cactus moth threatens Opuntia (Prickly Pear and Cholla) cactus species in the United States and Mexico.

  • The slow spread of this moth may have a devastating impact on sensitive cactus species in the Southwest.

Photo by S. Simonson, CSU


What is the blm doing about invasive species
What is the BLM doing about Invasive Species? Nile Virus

The BLM emphasizes:

  • Prevention

  • Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) invasive species.

  • The effective use of EDDR through inventory and monitoring efforts, followed by immediate control of infestations without regard to jurisdictional boundaries, so that whole weed infestations are treated. Current efforts are reducing the “net” rate of spread.


Control and Management Nile Virus – Integrated Pest Management approach using all available tools to control and manage invasive species:

  • Prevention

  • Mechanical

  • Chemical

  • Biological

  • Prescribed fire

  • Manual control methods

    ------ Inventory - 10 million acres annually

    ------ Weed Treatments - 350,000 acres annually

    ------ Monitoring - 475,000 acres annually

    ------ Restoration - 25,000 acres annually


  • Weed management projects supported by other BLM programs i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

  • Partnerships with over 50 Coordinated Weed Management Areas (CWMA’s) in the Western United States. Partners include state, federal, county, and private land managers.


National initiatives
National Initiatives i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

  • The Great Basin restoration strategy “Healing the Land,” recognizes that the invasion of weeds is a major obstacle to restoration efforts.

  • Recommends techniques such as establishing fuel breaks, greenstripping and other methods to protect areas from wildland fire impacts and weed invasions.


Other initiatives
Other initiatives i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

  • National Fire Plan – includes measures to reduce fine fuels such as cheatgrass

  • Standards and Guidelines for Rangeland Health – reduce invasive and noxious weed impacts and increase restoration efforts to improve forest and rangeland health standards


Other programs stewardship contracting
Other programs: i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife Stewardship Contracting

  • Stewardship contracting: contracting tool available to BLM (and FS)

  • Provides new opportunities to work with our partners on long-term projects (up to ten years).

  • It allows BLM to return any receipts from selling the by-products of land treatments back into the projects.

  • BLM is motivated in finding markets for invasives, such as salt cedar.


Fire impacts
Fire Impacts i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife


Recreation Dollars Lost. i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

$137 billion

spent annually to control invasive species


The estimated damage from i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife invasives worldwide totals more than $1.4 trillion – five percent of the global economy. ( Nature Conservancy)


Blm s responsibilities
BLM’S RESPONSIBILITIES . . . i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

  • Prevent the introduction of invasive species

  • Detect, respond to and control these populations

  • Monitor populations accurately and reliably

  • Provide for restoration of native species and habitat conditions when and where possible


Blm s responsibilities cont d
BLM’s Responsibilities (cont’d): i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

  • Conduct research on invasive species

  • Develop technologies to prevent the introduction and spread, promote control.

  • Promote public education.

  • Don’t authorize, fund or carry out actions that would cause or promote the introduction or spread of invasives.


Your responsibilities
Your Responsibilities: i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

Don’t drive or park in weed infested areas.

Don’t incorrectly collect weeds


Your Responsibilities i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

Wash Vehicles

Clean shoes and socks

Remove seeds from animals

Purchase and use weed-free materials

Inform/educate public land users.

Appropriately code time spent on weeds work.


Your responsibilities con t
YOUR Responsibilities ( i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife con’t):

Report it - know local and state weed coordinators.

Use other contacts.


Potential clues for invasive plants
Potential Clues for Invasive Plants i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

  • I’ve never seen this plant before.

  • It seems much more dense or wide spread than before.

  • It is growing on a recently disturbed site.

  • It is adjacent to a trail, road, stream or campsite.

  • It appears to be the dominant species.

  • Infestations form solid circular patches.


How do weeds spread
How do weeds spread? i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife


Activities that promote the spread of weeds
Activities that promote the i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife spread of weeds


Interdisciplinary efforts to combat invasives
Interdisciplinary Efforts to Combat i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife Invasives

  • Environmental Assessments

  • Environmental Impact Statements

  • Plan Development

  • Interim Guidance


Sampling
Sampling i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

1.Get identity confirmed.

2. Collect a specimen.

3. Bag, Tag and Flag.

4. If in doubt, don’t pull it out.

5. Facilitate future control.


Invasive: i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

any non-native species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health, and that outcompete native species for the resources necessary to exist.


Presidential Documents i.e., Range Improvements, Emergency Stabilization & Rehabilitation, and Wildlife

Executive Order 13112 of February 3, 1999

Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 25 / Monday, February 8, 1999 / Presidential Documents 6183

Invasive Species

Executive Order 13286 of February 28, 2003

Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection

With the Transfer of Certain Functions to the Secretary

of Homeland Security


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