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A Topology Discovery Algorithm for Sensor Networks. Go Suzuki CS691, SSNS Spring 2003. Introduction. Background for Wireless Sensor Network TOPLOGY DISCOVERY Algorithm Simulation & Results Conclusions. Wireless Sensor Network Background. MEMS Technology Low Power MAC Protocols

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A topology discovery algorithm for sensor networks

A Topology Discovery Algorithm for Sensor Networks

Go Suzuki

CS691, SSNS Spring 2003


Introduction
Introduction

  • Background for Wireless Sensor Network

  • TOPLOGY DISCOVERY Algorithm

  • Simulation & Results

  • Conclusions


Wireless sensor network background
Wireless Sensor Network Background

  • MEMS Technology

  • Low Power MAC Protocols

  • Power Aware Routing Algorithm

  • Energy Efficient Communication Protocol

  • Tiny Diffusion


Sensor network management possible models
Sensor Network Managementpossible models :

  • Network Topology

    connectivity / reachability map

  • Energy Map

    energy levels of the nodes at different path

  • Usage Pattern

    network activity, data transmit / unit time

  • Cost Model

    equipment / energy / human costs

  • Non-deterministic Models

    statistical & probabilistic models


Topology discovery
Topology Discovery?

  • Goal: To construct the topology of the whole network from the perspective of a single node.

  • Reducing the communication overhead of the process.


Topology discovery algorithm 3 stages
Topology DiscoveryAlgorithm: 3 stages

  • Monitoring node

     Send “topology discover request”

  • Divergence of requests

     reaching all active nodes

  • Response action

     topology information back to the initiating node


Topology discovery overview of topdisc response
Topology DiscoveryOverview of TopDisc Response

  • Direct Response

    Node B replies back to node A

    Node C replies to node B;

    node B forwards the reply to node A

    Node D replies to node B;

    node B forwards the reply to node A

    Node A gets the complete topology !

A

B

C

D


Listen

Agg. RES

Topology DiscoveryOverview of TopDisc Response

  • Aggregated Response

    Node C and D forward request;

    node B listens to these and deduces

    them to be its children

    Node C replies back to node B;

    node D replies back to node B

    Node B aggregates information from C, D and itself;

    node B forwards the reply to node A

    Node A gets the complete topology !

A

A

B

B

C

C

D

D


RES

B

Topology DiscoveryOverview of TopDisc Response

  • Clustered Response

    Assume: node B is a cluster head and nodes C and D are part of its cluster.

    Node C and D do not replay

    Only node B replies to node A

    Node A does not get link C  D

A

A

A

Cluster head

B

B

B

C

C

C

D

D

D


Cluster response approaches
Cluster Response Approaches

Cluster head

1. V = Vi

2.  x  Vi , edge( x, i )  E

graph: G(Vertex, Edge)

Vi be the neighborhood list of node i, with i C


Cluster response approaches request propagation with 3 colors
Cluster Response ApproachesRequest Propagation with 3 colors

  • White: undiscovered / not receive packet

  • Black: Cluster head node

  • Grey: node which is covered at least once black node


Cluster response approaches request propagation with 3 colors1
Cluster Response ApproachesRequest Propagation with 3 colors

Coloring algorithm

1. Using coloring mechanism to find the required set nodes.

2. Using a forwarding delay inversely proportional to the distance between receiving and sending node.


Cluster Response ApproachesRequest Propagation with 3 colors

a: initial state

a: broadcast request to b & c

b farther to a  wait shorter

c closer to a  wait longer

( forwarding delay )

b: broadcast request to e & c

e closer to b  wait longer

c farther to b  wait shorter

( forwarding delay )

Expand range as soon as possible

( depends on density )


Cluster Response ApproachesRequest Propagation with 4 colors

  • White / Black / Grey: same condition as before

  • Dark Grey: Discovered node,

     which currently is not covered by any neighboring black node and hence is two hops away from

    a black node.

     White node changes to dark grey on receiving

    a request from grey.

     Timer to become black node

    get req from black  grey

    expired w/o req  black


Cluster Response ApproachesRequest Propagation with 4 colors

a: initial state

a: TopDisc request to b

b: TopDisc request to c & e

c farther to b  wait shorter w/ dark.G

e closer to b  wait longer w/ dark.G

( forwarding delay )

( timer starts to become black )

c: TopDisc request to d

Expand range as soon as possible

(depends on density)


Cluster Response ApproachesRequest Propagation with 4 colors

Advantage:

  • # of clusters is less than with 3 colors

  • clusters are formed with lesser overlap

  • solitary black nodes

    (time out D.grey nodes with no neighbors)

    though number of black nodes is similar to three-color case, the number of bytes transmitted is lower.


Cluster response approaches topdisc response mechanism trec
Cluster Response ApproachesTopDisc Response Mechanism(TreC)

  • Node becomes black

     sets up a timer

     wait for the discovery request from children black nodes


Cluster response approaches topdisc response mechanism trec1
Cluster Response ApproachesTopDisc Response Mechanism(TreC)

2. Forwards aggregates all neighborhood lists

  • all neighborhood list from its children/itselt

     when timer for ACK expires, forward aggregated neighborhood list


Cluster response approaches topdisc response mechanism trec2
Cluster Response ApproachesTopDisc Response Mechanism(TreC)

3. All forwarding nodes in between black nodes may also add their adjacency list to the list from black nodes


Cluster response approaches topdisc response mechanism trec3
Cluster Response ApproachesTopDisc Response Mechanism(TreC)

***Timeouts of ACK should be properly set.

Timeouts of children black nodes should always expire before a parent black node.

Tree-Cluster(TreC) for 200 nodes


Cluster response approaches information of each nodes
Cluster Response Approaches Information of each nodes

  • Clusters is identified by the black node

  • A grey node knows its cluster ID

  • Each black node knows the default node

     All nodes have their neighborhood information


Cluster response approaches handling channel errors

Listen

?

?

Cluster Response ApproachesHandling Channel Errors

  • TopDisc request: would not be a problem because of flooding packets (packet Losses  # of black node increase )

  • Topology ACK: serious problem because of single path to return back to sink.

     assume links are symmetrical

    ( nodes listen neighbors transmit )

     Packet has to be stored at a node till the packet is

    reliably transmitted

  • Indirect ACK mechanism for reliable transmission.

A

B


Cluster response approaches characteristics of clusters
Cluster Response ApproachesCharacteristics of clusters

  • The total surface area and the communication range of nodes bound the maximum number of black nodes formed.

  • Number of nodes in each cluster depends on the local density of network

  • Depth of tree is bounded

  • Routing paths are near optimal for data flow between sour and sink.


Applications of topdisc retrieving network state
Applications of TopDiscRetrieving Network State

  • Connectivity Map

    Direct / Aggregate response  O.K., Clustered response method  x

  • Reachability Map

    Connectivity map is asuperset of the Reachable map

  • Energy Model

    Each (black) nodes can cache energy info for all neighbors.

  • Usage Model

    Cache receive / transmit rate and send its response


Applications of topdisc data dissemination and aggregation
Applications of TopDiscData Dissemination and Aggregation

  • Each cluster has a minimal number of nodes.

     active to transfer packets between a parent-child cluster pair

  • The area covered propagate up the tree and the monitor covers the whole field


Applications of topdisc duty cycle assignment
Applications of TopDiscDuty Cycle Assignment

1. Assignment with Location Information

Cluster a (parent)

a (black): TopDisc request to c

c (grey) : TopDisc request to b

b (black): will be child cluster

p (mid-point) of parent/child node


Applications of topdisc duty cycle assignment1
Applications of TopDiscDuty Cycle Assignment

  • Cluster a and Cluster b

  • p sends a packet

     a determines p is within range of c

     otherwise c can listen to the packet from p.

  • Node c forwards it to d

    *** since c is in range of p the black node a does not need to forward this packet.


Applications of topdisc duty cycle assignment2
Applications of TopDiscDuty Cycle Assignment

  • Cluster a and Cluster b

  • a sends packet

     c get packet and forward it to

    nodes within its range

  • b gets request with couple steps

    c: centermediate node between

    two black nodes

2. Assignment w/o Location Information


Simulations results byte overhead for topdisc
Simulations & ResultsByte Overhead for TopDisc

Byte Overhead ( Direct / Aggregate / TopDisc )

# of nodes Communication range

Only neighborhood list of Black nodes  stay low


Simulations results average path length
Simulations & ResultsAverage path length

Path Length ( Shortest path / TopDisc )


Simulations results of nodes sharing forwarding duty
Simulations & Results# of nodes sharing forwarding duty

Number of node sharing forwarding duty

Nearly 50% sharing Nearly 40% sharing

# of black nodes + # of default nodes


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • TopDisc selects a set of distinguished node

  • TopDIsc constructs a reachability map

  • TopDisc logically organizes the network

    and forms TreC

  • TreC for

    -- efficient data dissemination & aggregation

    -- duty cycle assignment

    -- network state retrieval

  • Completely distributed, used only local information and is highly scalable


References
References

  • A Topology discovery Algorithm for sensor Networks with Applications to Network Management

  • Benjie Chen, Kyle Jamieson, Hari Balakrishnan, and Robert Morris, Span: An Energy-Efficient Coordination Algorithm for Topology Maintenance in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks , ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 2001), Rome, Italy, July 16-21, 2001.

  • Alberto Cerpa and Deborah Estrin, ASCENT: Adaptive Self-Configuring Sensor Networks Topologies , International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2002), New York, NY, USA, June 23-27 2002.



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