Washington’s Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Steelhead Program – A retrospective and program...
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Washington’s Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Steelhead Program – A retrospective and program adaptive management overview. Mark Schuck and Joe Bumgarner Snake River Lab, Dayton, WA. Funding provided by:. Program Origin.

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Mark Schuck and Joe Bumgarner Snake River Lab, Dayton, WA

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Washington’s Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Steelhead Program – A retrospective and program adaptive management overview

Mark Schuck and Joe Bumgarner

Snake River Lab, Dayton, WA


Funding provided by:


Program Origin

The Lyons Ferry Hatchery program was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976 (PL 94-587) to offset losses caused by the construction and operation of the four Lower Snake River dam and navigation lock projects.

Facilities were constructed by the USACOE

Also constructed hatcheries in Oregon and Idaho


Ice Harbor Dam Steelhead(Dam Completed in 1961)


Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan - 1976

  • Fall Chinook

    • 18,300 adults/year

  • Tucannon Spring Chinook

    • 1,132 adults/year to the river

  • Summer Steelhead

    • 4,656 adults/year to project rivers

  • In-place and in-kind

  • Resident fish – fishing opportunity

    • 67,500 angler days


Lyons Ferry Hatchery 1980-1984


Original Steelhead Production

** LFH stock derived from Wells Stock. Wallowa Stock is Snake River composite developed by ODFW from fish trapped at Little Goose Dam.

Both stocks under review by NMFS.


LGR

Lyons Ferry Hatchery

LGO

LMN

Tucannon Hatchery

Lewiston

Dayton AP

ICH

Curl AP

Walla Walla

Cottonwood AP


Production + Evaluation

  • Monitor the success of LFH in meeting LSRCP compensation goals and identify production adjustments to accomplish that objective.

    • Fisheries,SAR, and Abundance were primary performance metrics

      • Size & time of release, stock differences, acclimation, genetics, morphometrics, transportation, effects on natural populations, etc.

  • It was envisioned as applied management (adaptive) of the program to ensure success. Work completed was therefore often reactive as conditions, study results or Management emphasis changed


Harvest Pre-Program(Snake, Tucannon, Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, Touchet)


Smolt Releases

1982-1998

LGR

LGO

Snake River

LMN

Clearwater

River

Tucannon River

Snake River

Asotin Creek

ICH

Touchet River

Walla Walla River

Columbia

River

Grand Ronde River


Ice Harbor Dam Steelhead


Smolt-to-Adult Survivalto Project Area


Harvest Post-Program(Snake, Tucannon, Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, Touchet)


Adult Returns to Project Area

LSRCP Goal = 4,656


Management Paradigm Changes

  • ESA listing for Snake River steelhead by 1999 – all Snake anadromous ESA listed.

    • Concern about excessive hatchery returns

  • Washington Wild Salmonid Policy

  • Hatcheries come under scrutiny

    • Hatchery/Wild Interactions

    • Can supplementation work?

    • Goals appropriate?


Program Changes

  • Release Locations altered or discontinued

    • Adoption of wild management rivers (Asotin)


Smolt Releases

1982-1998

LGR

LGO

Snake River

LMN

Clearwater

River

Tucannon River

Snake River

Asotin Creek

ICH

Touchet River

Walla Walla River

Columbia

River

Grand Ronde River


Smolt Releases

1999-Present

LGR

LGO

Snake River

LMN

Clearwater

River

Snake River

Tucannon River

Asotin Creek

ICH

Touchet River

Walla Walla River

Columbia

River

Grand Ronde River


Program Changes

  • Release Locations altered or discontinued

    • Adoption of wild management rivers (Asotin)

  • Production numbers reduced.


Mitigation Stock Releases(Lyons Ferry and Wallowa)


Program Changes

  • Release Locations altered or discontinued

    • Adoption of wild management rivers (Asotin)

  • Production numbers reduced.

  • Began testing feasibility of new broodstocks.


New Broodstocks – Test Programs

  • Tucannon River

    Long-Term Intent: Supplementation/Mitigation

    • 50,000 smolts annually, assess program success on adult returns to project area (PIT Tags).

  • Touchet River

    Long-Term Intent: Mitigation

    • 50,000 smolts annually, assess program success on adult returns to project area (PIT Tags).


  • Program Changes

    • Release Locations altered or discontinued

      • Adoption of wild management rivers (Asotin)

    • Production numbers reduced.

    • Began testing feasibility of new broodstocks

    • Expanded Tagging – CWT and PIT

      • Since 2000 BY all groups w/ representative CWT

      • Since 2007 BY all groups PIT tagged


    Run Timing at Ice Harbor


    Tucannon Strays


    Program Changes

    • Release Locations altered or discontinued

      • Adoption of wild management rivers (Asotin)

    • Production numbers reduced.

    • Began testing feasibility of new broodstocks.

    • Expanded Tagging – CWT and PIT

      • Since 2000 BY all groups CWT

      • Since 2007 BY all group PIT tagged

  • Removal of Excess Hatchery Fish


  • Traps/Barriers


    Ice Harbor Dam Steelhead


    Harvest Post-Program(Snake, Tucannon, Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, Touchet)


    Adult Returns to Project Area

    LSRCP Goal = 4,656


    Current & Potential Future Changes

    • Tucannon Endemic Implementation - 2010

    • Monitor adult returns and straying for future production level changes

      • Lower Snake River small stream tributary monitoring - TRT assignment to populations (Tucannon or Asotin?)

    • Consolidation of Mitigation Stocks


    Potential Future Changes

    • Touchet Endemic – Policy Decision Required

    • Establishing reference populations to determine hatchery effects

    • Can a large hatchery steelhead mitigation program be operated in this ESA environment?

      • Biological or social decision?

      • Where to fisheries fit in?


    Questions


    Artificial Production

    Policy: Promote the achievement of the natural production policy and provide fishery-related benefits by implementing artificial production programs as a component of a comprehensive habitat, hydro, harvest, and hatchery strategy, and by assuring artificial production programs meet the following characteristics:

    • Conservation Programs. Provide a net aggregate benefit to the diversity, spatial structure, productivity, and abundance of the target wild stock.

    • Harvest Programs. Enhance harvest opportunities in a manner consistent with watershed specific goals for wild stock management.


    All Smolt Releases(All Stocks)


    Run Timing at McNary


    Tucannon PIT SAR’s to Ice Harbor


    Touchet PIT SAR’s to McNary


    Walla Walla & Touchet R. Strays


    Smolt-to-Adult Survivalto Project Area


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