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Sept 11. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Understanding. Sept 11. Supercourse A project designed to create a free lecture library of PowerPoint prevention slides, 9212 Academic Faculty from 120 countries with over 800 available Free Powerpoint Lectures. http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/. Terrorism. What is it? Where does it come from?

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Understanding

Sept 11.


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Supercourse

A project designed to create a free lecture library of PowerPoint prevention slides, 9212 Academic Faculty from 120 countries with over 800 available Free

Powerpoint Lectures

http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/


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Terrorism

What is it?

Where does it come from?

Why is it used?

How can we prevent it?

What do we fear about Terrorism?


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FALLOUT SHELTER


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Terrorism

  • Is an unlawful act of violence

  • Intimidates governments or societies

  • Goal is to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives

Arthur H. Garrison


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“Putting the horror in the minds of the audience, and not necessarily on the screen”

“…warfare seeks to conquer territories and capture cities;

terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point”NYTimes, 1/6/2000


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Educational Deterence

Fear always springs from ignorance.

Emerson, 1837


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http://www.west.asu.edu/itweb/services/classroom.gif


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Early History of Terrorism

  • Terror has been used to achieve political ends and has a long history

    • As early as 66 – 72 A.D. Resistance to Roman occupation, terrorists killed Roman soldiers and destroyed Roman property.

  • Terror was used to resist occupation.

Arthur H. Garrison


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Early History of Terrorism

  • Suicidal martyrdom represented being killed by invaders which resulted in rewards in heaven. It dates back thousands of years in most societies and religions.

  • Terrorism against the enemy is often viewed as a religious act.

Arthur H. Garrison


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Modern History of Terrorism

  • The term “terrorism” was coined in the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror (1793 – 1794). .

  • This was the birth of Government-Sponsored Terrorism

  • The line between terrorism and political violence is often blurred

  • Goal: of State terrorism was to eliminate opposition, consolidate power, e.g., the Vanished in Argentina

Arthur H. Garrison


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Modern History of Terrorism

  • Anarchists were seen in the late 19th century

  • Individual terrorism

    • The use of selective terror against an individual in order to bring down a government, e.g. Lincoln assassination

  • Propaganda by deeds …terrorists acts

    • Terrorism became tool of communication, propaganda

Arthur H. Garrison


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Modern History of Terrorism:

  • Middle 20th century, terrorism became a tool used by both sides of colonial conflicts.

  • The last 20 years of of the 20th century religious based terrorism became more and more frequent.

  • Another format is economic terrorism, which destructs industry and agriculture system.

Arthur H. Garrison


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Modern History of Terrorism

  • Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare.

    • Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently random/unpredictable violence by an weak military against a stronger military to gain advantage. (Allen, 1997).

    • The key of Asymmetric warfare is using unexpected, unconventional tactics in combat (Craig, 1998).

Arthur H. Garrison


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Terrorism conclusions

  • Terrorism is an ancienttactic.

  • Terrorism is a mode of communication.

  • Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare.

  • Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war.

  • Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear.

  • Terrorism is a political act.

Arthur H. Garrison


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Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack

Terrorism takes much

Time and planning

Preparation

5 years

Execution 1 day

Diagnosed case 3 days

First Death

Multiple deaths


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Property of Terrorism

  • Terrorism is different from regular crime because of its strong political properties

  • The definition of terrorism can vary from people to people due to the differences in standpoint

  • One person’s terrorist can be another’s fighter


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Prevention of Terrorism

  • Primary prevention:

    • Education!!!

    • Understand the differences in cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors

    • Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all human beings, not just “my group of people”

    • Eliminate the root of terrorism


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Prevention of Terrorism

  • Secondary prevention:

    • Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack

    • Improve protective system for citizens


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Prevention of Terrorism

  • Tertiary prevention

    • Early detection of the sources

    • Prevent the extension of impairments

    • Rescue the survivors

    • Console the rest of the population


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Types of Terrorism

  • Domestic terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement. Oklahoma City is a primary example.

  • International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States. Sept. 11 is an example of International Terrorism.

the Center for National Security Studies


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Methods of Terrorism

  • Firearms

  • Explosive and Incendiary Devices

  • Chemical Agents

  • Biological Agents

  • Nuclear Weapon


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Suspicious Thing to Look for

From Emergency Net NEWS Archives, 1994 Document Courtesy of the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office


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Chemical Agents

  • Chemical agents kill or incapacitate people, destroy livestock or ravage crops

  • Some agents are odorless and tasteless

  • They can have an immediate or a delayed effect


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Example of Chemical Terrorism

  • Sarin nerve agent attacked the Tokyo subway system in March 20, 1995

  • 12 people were killed and 53 were seriously injured

Genro Ochi M.D


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Biological terrorism

  • Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror

  • The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages.

  • Microbes

    • Bacteria

    • Viruses

    • Toxins

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.


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Is this something new?

  • 14th Century – Kaffa

    • City on Crimean Peninsula

  • Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.


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Is this something new?

  • 18th Century French and Indian War

    • British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French

    • Caused an epidemic in tribes

    • Effective means of incapacitating group

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.


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Motives for bioterrorism

Fred T. Muwanga M.D. Msc


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Responses to Bioterrorism

  • Early detection of active and potential cases

  • Emergency measures to save lives

  • Prevention and management of secondary contamination


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Nuclear Terrorism

Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion

Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials

Detonate a nuclear weapon

No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred


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Proportion of death from terrorism in total death in the United States


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Risk of Dying

Penguin Books, 1987


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Death Rate of Various Causes in 2000 USA and that from Terrorism


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What occupation has had the greatest risk of death from Terrorism?


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Why did terrorism draw considerable attention in 2001?

  • The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely low in 1990’s, and was still relatively low compared with some diseases in 2001

  • But the death rate increased by 500 times in 2001 due to Sept. 11

  • Overall the death rate of terrorism has not been high

  • Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and fear engulfed the United States and world


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Conclusion

  • Terrorism is unlawful act

  • Terrorism has a long history of being used to achieve political, religious and ideological objectives

  • Terrorism can be conducted through firearms, explosive devices and biological, chemical, nuclear materials

  • Even through the events of 2001,the risk of dying from terrorism has remained much lower than that from motor vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic beverage.


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The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.FDR, 1933

Fears are educated into us & can,

if we wish, be educated out. — Karl A. Menninger


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