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# Voltage Probe Force Lab - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Voltage Probe Force Lab. by Kevin Bell and Christopher Nield. The Problem. Determine the force with which a tennis racket acts on a tennis ball. The Experiment.

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### Voltage Probe Force Lab

by Kevin Bell and Christopher Nield

• Determine the force with which a tennis racket acts on a tennis ball.

• To calculate force, it is necessary to determine the time duration during which the ball and racket are in contact (Δt) and the and the change in velocity during this time (Δv)

• Δv could be measured with photogates, but to keep our lab simple we calculated the change based on the height from which the ball was dropped and assuming no air resistance and perfect elasticity.

• Measuring Δt is more difficult.

• To do this, we considered the possibility of using a setup in which the ball would complete an electrical circuit while in contact with the racket that could potentially activate and deactivate the timer.

• Instead of a jury-rigged timer setup, however, we found that the Vernier voltage probe was capable of highly precise measurements of voltage against time.

• We wrapped a tennis ball with uninsulated copper wire to make it conduct electricity.

• We then laced more wire through the strings of the tennis racket.

• We then attached the racket wires to a battery and the voltage probe, such that the wire on the ball completed the circuit and registered as a voltage spike.

• The ball wrapped in wire

• Alligator clips attached to the wire on the racket, the voltage probe electrodes, and the battery

• The ball completing the circuit

• The ball must be massed for later analysis

• Another clamp is used to hold the ball and drop it consistently.

• C-clamps were used for stability.

• A quick twist drops the ball without added force

• From there, it drops to the tennis racket setup

• The contact time of the ball and racket can clearly be seen in the voltage spike.

• Average contact time (Δt): 0.00975s

• Ball mass (m): 0.05943kg

• Calculated acceleration (a):-769.0m/s2

• By Newton’s Second Law,

F=ma=(0.05943kg)(-769.0m/s2)

≈-45.7N

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