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Disaster Risk Reduction National Coordinating Mechanisms in NICARAGUA Context of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in NICARAGUA NICARAGUA has a DRR coordinating mechanism embodied in the Law 337: Creation of the System of Prevention, Mitigation and Attention to Disasters (SINAPRED)

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Disaster Risk Reduction National Coordinating Mechanisms in NICARAGUA

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Disaster Risk Reduction National Coordinating Mechanisms

in

NICARAGUA


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Context of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in NICARAGUA

  • NICARAGUA has a DRR coordinating mechanism embodied in the Law 337: Creation of the System of Prevention, Mitigation and Attention to Disasters (SINAPRED)

  • The law was promulgated in 2000, and it is still working.

  • Nicaragua is threatened by many natural hazards. In the past century, the capital city, Managua, was destroyed two times by earthquakes, XXX hurricanes have stroked the Caribbean coast and the Pacific coast, but one of these hurricane, Mitch, in 1998 caused XX death and material loss of XXX. This last event induced the national authorities to create a system to cope with these natural threats in a more organized way.

  • The Executive Secretary of SINAPRED (ES-SINAPRED) is the HFA focal point.


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Legal Framework for DRR and DRR National Plan

  • As we have said, the Law 337 indicates the responsibilities of all and every one among the government institutions in matter of disasters. The system is coordinated by an Executive Secretary in normal times, and its main responsibility is institutional coordination. Concerning prevention it is assumed by INETER, the institution in charge of the studies and surveillance of natural threats, and Civil Defence is in charge of preparedness. Finally, Civil Defence is in charge of the emergency management and recovery, in close collaboration with the Sectoral Commissions. Reconstruction activities are established in the law, and are the responsibility of the Infrastructure Ministry.

  • Concerning the DRR National Plan:

  • DRR is an important part of the national, sectoral and local development policies and investment policies.

  • The DRR National Plan seeks to establish and develop financial mechanisms to include risk management in the public investment process.

  • The DRR National Plan look for an improvement of preparedness and response capacity at all levels of SINAPRED.

  • The DRRNP tries and develop a strategy to strengthen the economic competitiveness and private management with DRR measures.

  • To increase the quality and availability of risk related information.

  • To improve civil society participation.

  • In the National Plans of Nicaragua the DRR is a very important issue, mainly concerning the sustainable development and the improvement of quality of life.


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DRR in Sectoral Policies

  • Nicaraguan government has promoted in all governmental institutions a culture of prevention through Sectoral Commissions that have been created by the Law 337. The DRR responsibilities are being gradually delegated to the municipalities as a contribution to decentralisation. Institutional Development, democratic governance and decentralisation are the main themes.

  • The Ministry of Environment is in charge of prevention of manmade pollution of natural resources, mainly lakes and rivers. In addition, in close collaboration with the Forestry Institute and Civil Defence, they try to prevent forest fires and avoid deforestation.

  • Nicaragua has a national strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation. This strategy has been discussed with the other Central American countries in order to have a unique position before international organizations.

  • In May 2007 was promulgated the General Law of National Waters to regulate the administration, conservation, development, use, sustainable and equitable exploitation, preserving quantity and quality of every water resource,

  • In the Ministry of Environment there is a Department for the clean production, and one of the purpose of this Department is to encourage producer to use environment friendly mode of production.

  • Seismic risk maps have been elaborated for the three main cities. And seismic threat maps for other cities. In addition, a land use code is in force since several years.

  • DRR is included in the primary and high school curricula.

  • Health Ministry has different plans for every season and for the different health threats; these plans go down to the level of Municipalities.

  • A new Building Code is in force since last year.


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National Preventive Disaster Risk Reduction Mechanism

President

(Vice – President)

National Committee

Technical Link Units

Sectoral Working Commissions

Executive Secretary

Fund

CODE

Departmental Secretaries/

Regional Coordinators

Departmental and Regional

Committees

Municipal Committees

Mayors


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National Crisis Management Mechanisms

NATIONAL COMMITTEE

CODE

Education and

Information

Natural

Phenomena

Health

Infrastructure

Environment

Security

Supplies

Special Operations

Consumer Defence


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Institutional Actors and Stakeholders in Normal Times

  • PNUD

  • FAO

  • UNICEF

  • OPS

  • CEPREDENAC

  • Red Cross

  • Volunteer Firemen

  • NGOs

  • Civil Defence

  • INETER

  • MINSA

  • MTI

  • Others

ES-SINAPRED

Departmental/Regional Committees

Local/Municipal Commitees

Private Sector participate eventually


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Institutional Actors and Stakeholders in Normal Times

  • PNUD

  • FAO

  • UNICEF

  • OPS

  • CEPREDENAC

  • Red Cross

  • Volunteer Firemen

  • NGOs

  • Civil Defence

  • INETER

  • MINSA

  • MTI

  • Others

ES-SINAPRED

National

Committee

CODE

Departmental/Regional Committees

Local/Municipal Committees

Private Sector participate eventually


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Institutional Actors and Stakeholders (Network in Normal Times)

UNDP

FAO

OPS

CEPREDENAC

ES-SINAPRED

Government,

Civil Defence

INETER

Ministry of Environment

Ministry of interior

Army

MINSA

MTI

NGO

Municipalities

Local communities


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Institutional Actors and Stakeholders (Network in Crisis Situation)

National Committee

UNDP

FAO

OPS

CEPREDENAC

CFAC

ES-SINAPRED

Government,

Army/Civil Defence

INETER

Ministry of Environment

Ministry of interior

Sectoral Commissions

MINSA

MTI

NGO

CODE

Municipalities

Local communities


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DRR Institutional Relation to Climate Change

The risks associated with Climate Change are included in the risks that are normally addressed by SINAPRED, such as hurricanes, floods, forest fires, etc.

The Environment Ministry has elaborated a National Strategy for Climate Change, which encompasses Action Plans for each of the Sectors involved, in adaptation as well as in mitigation activities.

Nicaragua is nowadays preparing for the end of the year the second communication at national level to inform on the topic of Climate Change and related developments, which include Local Mitigation Strategies for 2 departments (Boaco and Chontales) in the Sector of Agriculture and Fishing, as well as Adaptation Strategies for the Coffee Plantation Sector and Food Security in the Municipalities of Jinotega and Matagalpa.


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Regional Coordination of DRR and South-South Collaboration

Nicaragua is a member of a regional (Central American) organization: Centre for the Prevention of Natural Disaster in Central America (CEPREDENAC). Six Central American countries participate in this organization.


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Activities + Results

  • List some completed or current important activities and contributions of the NP/national DRR coordinating mechanism such as

  • contribution to the elaboration or update of the national DRR legal framework

  • awareness raising campaigns

  • support of national research in the field of DRR


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Identified Strengths and Weaknesses

  • In the case of DRR, Nicaragua's main strengths is the existence of the SINAPRED structure. In this structure are regrouped all the governmental institutions and some NGOs, and with the legal basis of Law 337 they are able to carry out prevention, mitigation and opportune response activities, in normal times and in crisis situation.

  • Among the best practices, one has to underline the interest of the State in promoting a culture of prevention throughout the whole country, including the insertion of themes related to DRR and Climate Change in the Education curricula of Primary and Secondary School.

  • The main weakness is the scarcity of material resources to cope with the huge needs that normally arise after a disaster, especially among poor people.


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