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UNIT NINE: Matter and Motion in the Universe PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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UNIT NINE: Matter and Motion in the Universe. Chapter 26 The Solar System Chapter 27 Stars Chapter 28 Exploring the Universe. Chapter Twenty-Eight: Exploring the Universe. 28.1 Tools of Astronomers 28.2 Galaxies 28.3 Theories about the Universe. Section 28.1 Learning Goals.

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UNIT NINE: Matter and Motion in the Universe

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UNIT NINE: Matter and Motionin the Universe

  • Chapter 26 The Solar System

  • Chapter 27 Stars

  • Chapter 28 Exploring the Universe

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Chapter Twenty-Eight:Exploring the Universe

  • 28.1 Tools of Astronomers

  • 28.2 Galaxies

  • 28.3 Theories about the Universe

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Section 28.1 Learning Goals

  • Apply formulas to solve astronomy problems.

  • Discuss the significance of the Hubble Space Telescope.

  • Compare and contrast reflecting and refracting telescopes.

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Investigation 28A

Tools of Astronomy

  • Key Question:

    How does a telescope work?

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28.1 Tools of Astronomers

  • The universe is defined as everything that exists, including all matter and energy.

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28.1 Astronomical numbers

  • Scientific notation is a mathematical abbreviation for writing very large (or very small) numbers.

How do scientists write the number 150,000,000?

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28.1 Astronomical distances

  • Astronomers have developed units other than kilometers or meters to measure the vast distances in space.

  • One light year is equal to the distance that light travels through space in one year.

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Solving Problems

How far is 10 parsecs in kilometers?

Use scientific notation in your answer.

  • Looking for:

    • …distance in km

  • Given:

    • …distance = 10 pc

  • Relationships:

    • 1 ly = 9.46 × 1012 km

    • 1 pc = 3.26 ly

  • Solution:

    • 10 pc (3.26 ly) x (9.46 x 1012 km) = 3.08 x 1013 km

      1 pc 1 ly

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28.1 Determining distances to closer objects in the universe

  • Astronomers use a method called parallaxto determine the distance of stars that are closer than 1,000 light years to Earth.

  • As Earth revolves around the Sun, the nearby stars appear to change positions in the sky over the course of one year.

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28.1 Determining distances to closer objects in the universe

  • To use parallax, astronomers determine the position of a closer star (moving) in relation to faraway stars (not moving).

  • Next, they look at the same star six months later, and measure its change in position relative to the distant stars.

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28.1 Studying the universe

  • Light from other galaxies and stars takes time to reach Earth.

  • The farther away the object they are viewing, the further back in time astronomers are looking.

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Solving Problems

How long does it take for radio waves to travel from the Moon to Earth?

  • Looking for:

    • …Time in seconds (s)

  • Given:

    • …distance from Earth to Moon = 384,400 km

    • …speed of light = 300,000 km/s

  • Relationships:

    • Speed = distance ÷ time (rearrange variables)

    • Time = distance ÷ speed

  • Solution:

    • 384,400 km ÷ 300,000 km/s = 1.28 s

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28.1 Telescopes

  • A telescope is a device that makes objects that are far away appear closer.

  • In the 1600s, Galileo was the first to use a telescope for viewing the night sky.

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28.1 Telescopes

  • Telescopes work by collecting the light from a distant object with a lens or mirror and bringing that light into a concentrated point, called the focal point.

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28.1 Telescopes

  • A refracting telescopeuses lenses to bend, or refract, light, making objects look bigger.

  • Refracting telescopes are made from a long tube, a glass objective lensthat you point toward the sky, and an eyepiece lens.

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28.1 Telescopes

  • A reflecting telescopeuses mirrors instead of lenses to gather and focus light.

  • A concave mirror (called the primary mirror) is placed at the back of a tube.

  • Thesecondary mirror deflects the light to an eyepiece lens.

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28.1 Telescopes and electromagnetic waves

  • Astronomers use different types of telescopes to view the different types of waves emitted by objects in space.

    • A radio telescopeworks like an extremely powerful receiver that picks up radio waves from space.

    • Infrared telescopesare often placed on satellites that orbit above Earth.

    • X-ray telescopesare designed to detect high-energy radiation (X-rays) from space.

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28.1 Telescopes and electromagnetic waves

  • These images of the Crab Nebula were taken with different telescopes.

  • Each new view gave astronomers more information.

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28.1 Satellites and other space craft

  • The Moon is a natural satellite that orbits Earth.

  • On October 4, 1957, the former Soviet Union launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satelliteto orbit Earth.

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28.1 Satellites and other space craft

  • The Hubble Space Telescope is a satellite that orbits Earth out of reach of “light pollution.”

  • It sends images from deep space to computers back on Earth.

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • Space probesare unmanned spacecraft that carry scientific instruments on board.

  • Launched in 1977, the NASA Voyager 1 and 2 probes are still sending information back to Earth via radio waves.

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • In April 1961, Yuri Gagarin of the former Soviet Union was the first human to travel in space.

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • Alan Sheppard of the U.S. followed on May 5.

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • This led to the NASA Manned Lunar Program known as Apollo, which lasted from 1963 to 1972.

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • Space shuttlesare piloted spacecraft that launch from rocket “boosters” and can land back on Earth like an airplane.

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • Developed by NASA, space shuttles are used to conduct experiments in space, to launch and repair satellites, and to transport people to and from space stations.

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • The International Space Station is a joint effort of many countries in Europe, Asia and North and South America.

  • It orbits about 400 kilometers above Earth’s surface.

  • On board, scientists conduct numerous experiments, many of which depend on the constant free fall (microgravity).

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission began in 2003.

  • Two unmanned rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, were sent to explore the surface features and geology of Mars.

Two generations of Mars Rovers: Sojourner and Spirit

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28.1 Spacecraft

  • NASA’s Phoenix lander launched in August 2007.

  • The lander contains a robotic arm that digs through the Martian soil and brings samples onboard for scientific analysis.

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