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Theories of Practice: The Human Resources Frame. MPA 8002 The Structure and Theory of Human Organization Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D. A HUMAN RESOURCES SCENARIO.

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theories of practice the human resources frame

Theories of Practice:The Human Resources Frame

MPA 8002

The Structure and Theory of Human Organization

Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.

slide2

A HUMAN RESOURCES SCENARIO

People are the heart of any organization. When people feel the organization is responsive to their needs and supportive of their goals, managers and leaders can count on their followers’ commitment and loyalty. Managers and leaders who are authoritarian or insensitive, who don’t communicate effectively, or who simply don’t care about their people can never be effective managers and leaders. The human resource manager and leader works on behalf of both the organization and its people, seeking to serve the best interests of both.

slide3

MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

IN A HUMAN RESOURCES SCENARIO

The job of the manager and leader is one of support and empowerment. Support takes a variety of forms: letting people know that they are important and that managers and leaders are concerned about them; listening to find out about their followers’ aspirations and goals; and, communicating personal warmth and openness. Human resource managers and leaders empower their followers through participation and openness as well as by making sure that they have the autonomy and the resources they need to do their jobs well. Human resource managers and leaders emphasize honest, two-way communication as a way to identify issues and resolve differences. They are willing to confront others when it is appropriate, but they try to do so in a spirit of openness and caring.

Bolman & Deal (1991, p. 359)

slide5
If the principles of scientific management were considered “revolutionary,” the assertions of the early human resources theorists were “radical”...
slide6
…as their hypotheses challenged the antecedents and theories of practice governing how managers viewed workers for the new Industrial era.
one of the earliest precursors of human resources theory
One of the earliest precursors of human resources theory...

David Owen

  • 18th century mercantilist
  • owned spinning mills throughout Scotland
  • believed that worker productivity could be improved by being attentive to their basic human needs
slide8

provided workers a high standard of living, including:

decent, clean housing

life-long educational opportunities

  • preschool
  • progressive elementary and secondary schooling
  • day care
  • continuing adult education
slide9

in contrast to prevailing practice, Owen trained his managers in humane disciplinary practices...

...endeavored to make workers “origins” rather than “pawns” of the organization (de Charms, 1968)

contrasting pawns and origins
Contrasting “pawns” and “origins”...

how managers and leaders view “pawns”:

how managers and leaders view “origins”:

  • active “resources”
  • passive “workers”
  • competent and basically self-motivated
  • basically incompetent and lazy
  • bring skills, attitudes, energy, enthusiasm, and commitment
  • require training
  • need close supervision
  • are self-regulating
slide11

how “origins” experience work:

how “pawns” experience work:

  • invigorating opportunities to make a personal contribution
  • “replaceable cogs” in a machine
  • victims of incompetent bosses, bureaucratic inertia, and organizational doublespeak
  • a place to experience a sense of belonging, to build self-esteem, and to become self-actualized
  • a place for personal and professional growth and challenge by asserting oneself and advocating one’s needs
  • alienating, dehumanizing, and frustrating
slide12
The issue raised by the human resources theories of practice is that of better aligning people and organizations not people or organizations...
slide13
because...

people need organizations

…for the extrinsic rewards work provides

…for the intrinsic satisfaction work can provide

organizations need people

…for a reliable and stable labor pool

…for the energy, effort, and talent people bring

the assumptions of human resources theories
The assumptions of human resources theories...

1. organizations exist to serve human needs

2. organizations and people need each other

ideas

salaries

energy

opportunities

careers

talent

3. the fit of people and organization is critical

an inappropriate fit can lead to exploitation or victimization by people and/or the organization

slide15
The rise of industrial/organizational psychology in the 20th century, especially human needs theories, provided a theoretical focus to consider the fit of people and organization...
abraham maslow 1954
Abraham Maslow (1954)...
  • defined the hierarchy of pre-potent needs

5. self-actualization

5

4. self-esteem

4

3. belongingness

3

2. safety, security

2

1. physiological

1

chris argyris 1957
Chris Argyris (1957)...
  • asserted that the worker-structure conflict is built into the traditional principles of organizational design and management

task specialization defines jobs as narrowly as possible to improve efficiency…

...but the outcome is that work is depersonalized and becomes monotonous

slide18

evidence of worker-structure conflict:

1. personal withdrawal—evident in absenteeism and

quitting

2. psychological withdrawal—evident in indifference

passivity, and apathy

3. resistance—evident in soldiering, deception,

feather bedding, and sabotage

4. power grabs—climbing the bureaucracy

5. forming coalitions (e.g., unions) to redress power

imbalances

6. socializing children with negative view of work

(i.e., unrewarding, little hope for advancement)

frederick herzberg 1959
Frederick Herzberg (1959)...

formulated a two factor theory of the motivation to work:

E

A

2F

M

motivation is a psychological complex of two factors manifesting themselves in attitudes evident in their effects

slide20
2 FACTORS

hygiene factors

2F

motivators

these factors are the objective elements and subjective feelings (i.e., needs or drives activated by the events themselves) antecedent to an attitude

slide21

extrinsic

hygiene factors

  • do not motivate but the absence of hygiene increases worker dissatisfaction
  • when hygiene is not met, workers strike or give up motivation and become addicted to hygiene
slide22

Good organizational hygiene provides the foundation for higher motivation in the workplace...

hygiene factors

slide23

motivators

intrinsic

  • experiences enabling personal growth and self-actualization in the work itself

doing complete jobs, experiencing success

achievement

engaging in work design and accountability

responsibility

doing the job

the work itself

engaging in new learnings, developing expertise

advancement

slide25
To inculcate higher motivation in workers, managers and leaders should focus on:
  • using the organizing and planning functions to encourage high morale
  • attending to the workers’ attitudes not the work process
slide26
While attending to worker morale and attitudes, managers and leaders recognize:
  • that workplace hygiene is primary providing the foundation for motivation
  • that motivation to work is a psychological process not a matter of a worker’s interest in the job
  • that salary is a hygiene factor not a motivator
slide27
According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation, the worst of all motivators is…

…an across-the-board salary increase

douglas mcgregor 1960
Douglas McGregor (1960)...

posited a theory of management, Theory X and Theory Y

…asserting that a manager’s assumptions about people become self-fulfilling prophecies evident in organizational behavior

slide29
Theory X...

people are inherently:

lazy

passive

possess little ambition

prefer to be led

resist change

slide30
Theory X...

workers are characterized by:

…an external locus-of-control

…“other-centered” directedness

slide31
Theory X...

management through:

coercion

tight controls

threats

punishments

slide32
Theory X...

self-fulfilling prophecies:

coercion

low productivity

antagonism

tight controls

threats

militant unions

punishments

subtle sabotage

slide33
Theory Y...

people are inherently:

motivated

active and interested

ambitious

prefer to lead

interested in change

slide34
Theory Y...

workers are characterized by:

…an internal locus-of-control

…self-direction

slide35
Theory Y...

management through:

open systems

communication

self-managing teams

peer-controlled pay systems

slide36
Theory Y...

management through:

open systems

needs and tasks aligned

communication

accurate feedback

self-managing teams

worker investment

peer-controlled pay systems

fairness and equity

slide37
the essential task of managers and leaders is to arrange organizational conditions…

…so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts toward organizational rewards

slide38
While industrial/organizational psychology provided a theoretical focus to consider the fit of people and organization...

…the goal of making the workplace and productivity a forum for people to express their freedom and dignity, as noble as this goal may be, has never been empirically proven.

argyris sch n 1974 1996
Argyris & Schön (1974, 1996)...

juxtaposed two theories of practice, Model I and Model II

Model I…what managers and leaders say conflicts with what they do

Model II…through organizational learning, there is congruence between what managers and leaders say and do

model i assumptions
Model I assumptions...
  • organizations are competitive, dangerous places
  • watch out for yourself or someone else will do you in
model i theory in use
Model I theory-in-use...

core values

actionstrategy

outcomes: behavior

outcomes: learning

no learning: self-sealing, protection from negative feedback

defensive, inconsistent, fearful, and selfish appearance

design and manage the environment unilaterally

identify and achieve goals

slide42

core values

actionstrategy

outcomes: behavior

outcomes: learning

“single-loop” learning:

core values and assumptions remain unquestioned

engenders defensive, inconsistent, fearful, and selfish behaviors in others

own and control what is relevant to one’s interests

maximize winning, minimize losing

slide43

core values

actionstrategy

outcomes: behavioral

outcomes: learning

core values and assumptions are tested privately

reinforces defensive norms: mistrust, risk avoidance, conformity, and rivalry

insulate oneself from criticism, discomfort, and vulnerability

minimize the expression of negative feelings

slide44

core values

actionstrategy

outcomes: behavior

outcomes: learning

collusion that impedes organizational learning

critical organizational issues are not discussed

insulate others from being hurt

be rational

the model i problem solving process
The Model I problem-solving process...

1. assume that others are causing the problem

2. develop a private, unilateral diagnosis and solution to the problem

slide46

3. get other(s) to change by...

…calmly using facts, logic, and rational persuasion to assert the merits of your point of view

…using indirect coercive influences

…formulating and issuing direct critiques

slide47
4. defensiveness confirms the original diagnosis

5. intensify pressures by offering to protect or to reject the other person(s)

6. if unsuccessful, bear no responsibility because the outcome is the other person(s) fault

model i outcomes
Model I outcomes...

Managers and leaders using a Model I theory of practice increase in workers...

feelings of vulnerability

self-protecting behaviors

games of camouflage

deception

slide49

…and increase the probability of...

organizational

catastrophe

model ii problem solving process
Model II problem-solving process...

1. emphasize common goals and mutual influence

LEADERS AND MANAGERS DO NOT FORGET:

M

Mutually Assured Destruction produces no winners

A

D

slide51

2. communicate openly and publicly, testing one’s assumptions and beliefs

Does what I espouse...

…what I do?

slide52
3. combine inquiry with advocacy

what others think, know, want, and feel

inquiry

what I think, know, want, and feel

advocacy

human resources theory requires that managers and leaders possess
Human resources theory requires that managers and leaders possess...
  • a fundamental competence in relating with diverse individuals effectively

sufficiently good interpersonal skills:

  • the refined ability to inquire in a non-threatening way:
  • What is going on here?
  • Why are people behaving as they are?
  • What can I do about it?
slide54
is not afraid of conflict

sufficiently good intrapersonal skills:

  • is able to confront conflict
  • in arguments, is able to distance oneself from the passion of the moment and to construct how other individuals are making sense of things
  • “complicates” (rather than simplifies) one’s understanding of how the organization really works
slide55
negotiates the fit between the individual and the organization

sufficiently good group skills:

  • is comfortable with plurality, diversity, and ambiguity
  • directs conflict towards productive ends
  • while solving problems, resolves organizational issues
slide56

while groups can promote...

…groups can also generate

increased knowledge

caving into social pressure

a diversity of perspectives

inefficiency

time and energy

personal agendas which dominate the decision making process

improved communication

increased acceptance of decisions

unproductive constraints

slide57
to increase group productivity managers and leaders must be able to address:
  • other’s personal interests
  • the requirements of various task roles
  • the requirements of various personal roles
  • informal group norms
  • interpersonal conflict
basic human resources strategies
Basic human resources strategies...

1. develop a long-term organizational commitment to the philosophy of human resources

  • build human resources in to the corporate and incentive structures

tactics:

  • develop quantitative and qualitative measures of human resources management
slide59

2. invest in people

  • hire the right people and reward them well
  • provide job security

tactics:

  • promote from within
  • train and educate
  • share the wealth of success
slide60

3. deal directly with people

  • engage in active listening
  • provide accurate feedback
  • search for common interests

tactics:

  • experiment with ideas and proposals
  • doubt one’s infallibility
  • treat differences as a group responsibility
slide61

4. empower people through work redesign

  • provide greater autonomy and participative management
  • focus on job enrichment

tactics:

  • emphasize teamwork
  • ensure egalitarianism
  • provide opportunities for upward hierarchical influence
slide62
Because change causes people to feel incompetent, needy, and powerless, providing for the development of new skills, creating opportunities for involvement, and providing psychological support are essential managerial/leadership tasks.
using human resources theory
Using human resources theory...

…catalysts

effective managers and leaders are

…servants

…support

whose primary concerns are

…empowerment

human resources tasks for managers and leaders
Human resources tasks for managers and leaders...

1. help individuals and group develop a shared sense of direction and purpose

2. balance task and process goals

3. endeavor to make group work both satisfying and efficient

slide65

4. keep on top of a large, complex set of activities

5. get support from bosses

6. get support from corporate staff and other constituents

7. motivate, coordinate, and control large, diverse group of subordinates

abusing human resources theory
Abusing human resources theory...

…wimps

ineffective managers and leaders are

…pushovers

…making people happy

whose primary concerns are

…managing by abdication

strengths of the human resources theory of practice
Strengths of the human resources theory of practice...

…personal

…practical

…addresses fundamental human needs and interests

limitations of the human resources theory of practice
Limitations of the human resources theory of practice...

…naïve

…optimistic

…not realistic in a fast-changing environment

integrating reflective practice conceptual pluralism and organizational analysis
Integrating reflective practice, conceptual pluralism, and organizational analysis...

Analyzing organizations through four frames inculcates the conceptual pluralism needed to diagnose the issues underlying the problems manifesting themselves in human organizations.

the structural frame

the political frame

the human resources frame

the symbolic frame

this module has focused on
This module has focused on...

the human resources theories that managers and leaders can utilize in practice episodes

slide71

as these theories of practice provide managers a frame of reference to inform decision making, the

the human resources frame

offers managers and leaders guidance about the strengths and limits of human resources theory

slide72

A HUMAN RESOURCES SCENARIO

People are the heart of any organization. When people feel the organization is responsive to their needs and supportive of their goals, managers and leaders can count on their followers’ commitment and loyalty. Managers and leaders who are authoritarian or insensitive, who don’t communicate effectively, or who simply don’t care about their people can never be effective managers and leaders. The human resource manager and leader works on behalf of both the organization and its people, seeking to serve the best interests of both.

slide73

MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

IN A HUMAN RESOURCES SCENARIO

The job of the manager and leader is one of support and empowerment. Support takes a variety of forms: letting people know that they are important and that managers and leaders are concerned about them; listening to find out about their followers’ aspirations and goals; and, communicating personal warmth and openness. Human resource managers and leaders empower their followers through participation and openness as well as by making sure that they have the autonomy and the resources they need to do their jobs well. Human resource managers and leaders emphasize honest, two-way communication as a way to identify issues and resolve differences. They are willing to confront others when it is appropriate, but they try to do so in a spirit of openness and caring.

Bolman & Deal (1991, p. 359)

the next module will focus on
The next module will focus on...

the political frame

and the political science theories that managers and leaders can utilize in practice episodes

slide76

A POLITICAL SCENARIO

Managers and leaders have to recognize political reality and know how to deal with it. Inside and outside any organization, there are always a variety of different interest groups, each with its own agenda. There are not enough resources to give everyone what he or she wants, and there is always going to be conflict.

slide77

MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

IN A POLITICAL SCENARIO

The job of managers and leaders is to recognize the major constituencies, to develop ties to their leadership, and to manage conflict as productively as possible. Above all, they need to build power bases and use power carefully. They cannot give every group everything it wants, although they can try to create arenas for negotiating differences and coming up with reasonable compromises. Managers and leaders also have to work hard at articulating what everyone in their organizations possesses in common. Managers and leaders must tell the people that it is a waste of time to fight each other when there are plenty of enemies outside that they can all fight together. Groups that fail to work well together internally tend to get trounced by outsiders who have their own agendas.

Bolman & Deal (1991, p. 361)

references
References
  • Argyris, C. (1960). Individual actualization in complex organizations. Mental Hygiene, 44(2), 226‑37.
  • Argyris, C. (1986, Sept.-Oct.). Double loop learning in organizations, Harvard Business Review, 64(5), 74-79.
  • Argyris, C. (1977, Sept-Oct). Skilled incompetence. Harvard Business Review, 55(5), 115-25.
  • Argyris, C. (1991). Teaching smart people how to learn. Harvard Business Review, 69(3), 99-109.
  • Argyris, C., & Schön, D. A. (1974). Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
slide80
Barnard, C. I. (1938/1968). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1997). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • DeCharms, P. (1968). Personal causation. New York: Academic Press.
  • Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959/1993). The motivation to work. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
slide81
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.
  • McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of organization. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Sergiovanni, T. J. (1989). Informing professional practice in educational administration. Journal of Educational Administration, 27(2), p. 186.
  • Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
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