Rhetorical Analysis. Rhetoric . The study of effective speaking and writingThe art of persuasion. Rhetorical Analysis. The Rhetorical Situation . P: purposeA: audienceP: pathosE: ethosL: logos. . Five concepts to help explore any rhetorical situation . Rhetorical Analysis. Purpose. What change does the writer/speaker want to effect?IMPORTANT: To ensure you have a clear understanding of purpose, you should be able to express this in terms of physical, tangible action.A writer may have mul9460
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1. Rhetorical Analysis The Rhetorical Situation: Five Components of Persuasion Preparation for Rhetorical Analysis
2. Rhetorical Analysis Rhetoric The study of effective speaking and writing
The art of persuasion
3. Rhetorical Analysis The Rhetorical Situation P: purpose
4. Rhetorical Analysis Purpose What change does the writer/speaker want to effect?
IMPORTANT: To ensure you have a clear understanding of purpose, you should be able to express this in terms of physical, tangible action.
A writer may have multiple purposes
5. Rhetorical Analysis Audience All attempts to persuade must take into account the audience
“Audience” includes three things:
knowledge of audience’s values
proper fit with situation
6. Rhetorical Analysis Appeals Definition: Approaches to or ways of persuading a reader or listener
Aristotle listed three appeals:
7. Rhetorical Analysis Logos Appeal to logic or reason; logical
Very rarely effective in persuasion
“Reason is, and ought only to be, slave to the passions.” —David Hume
8. Rhetorical Analysis Common Logical Appeals Incontrovertible, indisputable facts
CAUTION: Many appeals are clothed in logical apparel but are NOT pure reason.
Evidence that relies on interpretation is not, strictly speaking, an appeal to logos.
9. Rhetorical Analysis Ethos Appeal of the writer’s character, credibility, trustworthiness (ethical)
Attempts to gain the respect of the audience
Often appeals to shared values—i.e., says “I’m one of you.”
10. Rhetorical Analysis Common Ethical Appeals Levels of diction: how a writer/speaker chooses words to address a particular audience
Citing authorities (e.g., Einstein)
Appearing humble, down to earth
Alluding to cultural, religious, literary values held by the audience
11. Rhetorical Analysis Pathos Appeal to emotion; passionate (pathetic)
Attempts to draw on an audience’s pity, anger, hatred, etc.
Powerful, truly persuasive speaking and writing is always filled with pathos
12. Rhetorical Analysis Common Emotional Appeals Diction
Syntax (*especially if syntax supports meaning)
13. Rhetorical Analysis Using It All It is possible—even preferable—for a writer or speaker to make multiple appeals at the same time.
Use information about the rhetorical situation to analyze rhetoric question and to create your own arguments